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River god. 3405: Flussgott mit Schale. Mitte des 17 Jhr. Niederlande. Modell für eine Goldschmiedearbeit. Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg.

The RIVER GODS are collectively said to be the offspring of Oceanus & Tethys, but there are exceptions: 

Achelous. This is the river god who wrestled against Heracles 1 for the hand of Deianira 1 in the shape of a bull and got one horn broken which he recovered by giving the horn of Amalthea in its stead. Achelous is the river dividing Acarnania from Aetolia. He saved Perimede 1, who was hurled down from a high cliff by her father Aeolus 1, and consorting with her had children (see below).




a) Melpomene
b) Sterope 2
c) Terpsichore 1


"a)", "b)", etc. = different versions.

Melpomene is one of the MUSES.
Sterope 2 is daughter of Euryte 2, daughter of Hippodamas 1, son of the same Achelous. Her father was Porthaon (see Calydon).
Terpsichore 1 is one of the MUSES.

Perimede 1

Hippodamas 1
Orestes 1

Perimede 1 is daughter of Aeolus 1.
Hippodamas 1 is father of Euryte 2, who married Porthaon and gave birth to Oeneus 2, King of Calydon.


Callirrhoe 2

See Robe & Necklace of Harmonia 1


Pirene 2

Pirene 2 became a spring because of her tears shed in lamentation for her son Cenchrias' death. This Cenchrias gave his name to the harbor of Cenchrae in Corinth.



After Castalia a fountain at Delphi was called.



Dirce ill-treated Antiope 3 and was punished by her sons Amphion 1 and Zethus, who tied her to a bull and flung her dead body into the spring called Dirce after her.



(Apd.1.7.3, 1.7.10, 3.7.5; Apd.Ep.7.18; Arg.4.893; Eur.Bacc.519; Hes.The.338ff.; Hyg.Fab.31; Pau.2.2.3, 10.8.9; Pla.Phae.263D).

Acheron. This is the River of Pain in the Underworld. Into Acheron flow Periphlegeton and Cocytus, which is a branch of the Styx. Acheron is father of Ascalaphus 2, by either Gorgyra or Orphne, an Avernal nymph. For Ascalaphus 2, who is being punished in the Underworld, see Persephone (Apd.1.5.3; Hom.Od.10.513; Nonn.4.152; Ov.Met.5.539).

Acis. Acis is son of Faunus 1 & a Symaethian Nymph. Faunus 1, who is a Half-goat god, has been sometimes identified with Pan or with a Satyr, and has been called King of Latium. Acis was loved by Galatea 1, but was killed by the Cyclops Polyphemus 2, who, out of jealousy, buried him under a rock, and Acis was then turned into a river (Ov.Met.13.750, 13.879ff.).

Aeas. This river god is known for having consoled the river god Peneus on account of Daphne 1 (see Peneus below) (Ov.Met.1.580).

Aegaeus. Father of the naiad Melite 2, mother by Heracles 1 of Hyllus 1 (Arg.4.538).

Aesepus 1 (Hes.The.342).

Almo 2 is the god of a river tributary of the Tiber. He is the father of the naiad Lara, also called Tacita because she lost her indiscreet tongue after having reported to Hera that Zeus loved Juturna. Lara consorted with Hermes and gave birth to the LARES, the (Roman) twin brothers, who guard the crossroads and ever keep watch in the city (Ov.Fast.2.601).

Alpheus. This is the river who fell in love with Arethusa 3, a huntress who would not marry, and to avoid further troubles changed from a woman into a spring. But the river Alpheus mingled its own waters with hers. Alpheus married Telegone, daughter of Pharis, the founder of Pharae in Messenia. They had a son Orsilochus 1, father of Diocles 1, a man living in Pharae, who gave hospitality to Odysseus' son Telemachus. Phegeus 1, who purified Alcmaeon 1 for having murdered his mother Eriphyle (see Robe & Necklace of Harmonia 1) is also a child of Alpheus, and so is Melantheia, who consorted with Poseidon. Alpheus is a river of Elis, which rises in Arcadia (Hes.The.338ff.; Hom.Il.5.541ff.; Hyg.Fab.244; Ov.Met.573ff.; Pau.4.30.2, 6.22.9; Plu.GQ.19).

Amphrysos. This river god is known for having consoled the river god Peneus on account of Daphne 1 (see Peneus below) (Ov.Met.1.580).

Apidanus. This river god is known for having consoled the river god Peneus on account of Daphne 1 (see Peneus below) (Ov.Met.1.580).

Ardescus (Hes.The.338ff.).

Asopus. Other parentages have been attributed to Asopus: Poseidon & Pero 1, Zeus & Eurynome 3, and Poseidon & Celusa. For Eurynome 3 see OCEANIDS. Asopus married Metope 1, daughter of the river god Ladon 1. The children of Asopus are:




In search of his daughter Aegina, who had been carried off, Asopus came to Corinth and learned from Sisyphus that the ravisher was Zeus. Asopus pursued him, but Zeus, by hurling thunderbolts, sent him away to his own streams.

Antiope 3

See Oedipus.

Asopis 2




Mother by Poseidon of Phaeax 1, from whom the Phaeacians, living in the island of Corcyra, received their name.


Mother of Oenomaus 1, the king of Pisa who was tricked by Myrtilus and Pelops 1.

Hypseus 3

Defender of Thebes against the SEVEN. He was killed by Capaneus.

Ismene 1

Grandmother of Io, according to some.

Ismenus 1

Said to be the father of Dirce. Her story is at Oedipus.


After her the land of Nemea in the Peloponnesus was called.



Pelagon 1

Pirene 3


After her the Plataeans in Boeotia in mainland Greece are called.


Mother of Cychreus by Poseidon. Her son named the island after her.


Mother by Apollo of Syrus 1, King of the Syrians.


After her the city in Boeotia was named.


Twin sister of Aegina after whom the city of Thebes is named.


After her Thespiae, the Boeotian city west of Thebes, was called.

(Apd.3.12.6-7; Arg.2.946; Dio.4.72.1; Hdt.5.80, 9.51; Hom.Od.11.260; Pau.2.5.2, 2.12.4, 2.15.1, 2.15.3, 5.22.6, 9.1.1, 9.20.1, 9.26.6; Stat.Theb.7.310, 7.723).

Asterion 2. This river, along with Cephisus and Inachus, decided that Argolis would belong to Hera and not to Poseidon. But then Asterion 2's daughters, Euboea 2, Prosymna and Acraea had been nurses of Hera (Hes.The.366; Pau.2.15.1, 2.17.1).

Axius. Axius (a Macedonian river) is, by Periboea 7, father of Pelegon, who in turn is father of Asteropaeus, who, serving under the Lycian Sarpedon 1, was one of the best among the allies of Troy. Asteropaeus was killed by Achilles during the Trojan War (Apd.Ep.4.7; Hom.Il.21.140).

Caicus 1. River in Mysia, Asia Minor (Hes.The.338ff.)

Cayster. River in Lydia, father of Ephesus, the founder of the sanctuary of Ephesian Artemis and the eponym of the city Ephesus (Pau.7.2.7).

Cebren. A river near Troy. His daughter Asterope 1 was loved by Aesacus 1, the interpreter of dreams who declared that Paris was to become the ruin of the country and advised that the child should be exposed. When Asterope 1 died, killed by the bite of a serpent, Aesacus 1, who was son of King Priam 1 of Troy, could not find consolation and, having mourned for her, he was turned into a diving bird by Tethys (for Oenone 1, another daughter of Cebren, see Trojan War) (Apd. 3.12.5-6).

Cephisus. 6309: Votive relief. The god Kephissos (detail). About 410 BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

Cephisus. Among the children of Cephisus are Narcissus, Diogenia 1, mother of Praxithea 4, mother of King Cecrops 2 of Athens; Eteocles 2, a Boeotian king; Daulis, after whom the city Daulis in Phocis was named; Melaena, who consorted with Apollo and gave birth to Delphus, after whom the city of Delphi was named; and Thyia 3, who is said to have been the mother of Delphus by Apollo. Cephisus married the nymph Liriope (Apd.3.15.1; Hdt.7.178; Ov.Met.3.342; Pau.9.34.9, 10.4.7, 10.6.4).

Chremetes. This is a river of Libya, or in N.-W. Africa. Chremetes is father of Anchiroe 3, mother of Crataigonos, Leader of the Libyan peoples who joined Dionysus 2 in his Indian campaign. Crataigonos' father Psyllus made war against the WINDS and was killed by them (Nonn.13.380).

Cladeus. A river in Elis (Pau.5.10.7).

Cratais 2. Cratais 2 is sometimes called father of Scylla 1 (Hyg.Fab.199).

Crinisus. River in Sicily. Crinisus is father of Acestes, the host of Aeneas when he commemorated the death of his father in Sicily (Hyg.Fab.273; Vir.Aen.5.38).

Cydnos. River in Cilicia, Asia Minor. Cydnos consorted with Comaetho 3, a fountain, who mingled her water with that of her lover, the river Cydnos (Nonn.2.144, 40.141).

Enipeus. River in Thessaly or Elis. It is said that Poseidon took his form when he begot the ALOADS (for these see Zeus) (Apd.1.9.8; Ov.Met.6.116).

Erasinus. A river in Argos. His daughters Byze, Melite 3, Maera 5, and Anchiroe 2 received Britomartis when she fled from King Minos 2 of Crete (Lib.Met.40; Pau.2.24.6).

Eridanus. This is a fabulous river, sometimes the Po, other times the Nile or the Ocean. His daughter Zeuxippe 1 married Teleon and gave birth to Butes 1 and Eribotes, both ARGONAUTS (Dio.5.23.3; Hes.The.338ff.; Hyg.Ast.2.32; Hyg.Fab.14).

Euphrates. One of the two rivers in Mesopotamia (Nonn.43.409).

Evenus 1. River in Aetolia (Hes.The.338ff.).

Granicus. River in Asia Minor, flowing from the mountains of Ida. Granicus' daughter Alexiroe married King Priam 1 of Troy and gave birth to Aesacus 1 (see also Cebren above in this list) (Hes.The.338ff.; Ov.Met.11.763).

Haliacmon (Hes.The.341).

Heptaporus. River in Asia Minor flowing from Mount Ida (Hes.The.338ff.).

Hermus 2. River flowing north of Mount Tmolus in Asia Minor, emptying in the Aegean Sea (Hes.The.342).

Hydaspes 1. The river Jhelum in the land today called Pakistan. Son of Thaumas 1 & the Oceanid Electra 1. Hydaspes 1 is father of King Deriades of India (Nonn.17.282, 21.225, 23.236, 26.362).

Inachus. River in Argos. Inachus is father of Aegialeus 2, Phoroneus, Io, and Mycene. The mother of these children could have been Melia or Argia 3, both OCEANIDS (Apd.2.1.1-3; DH.1.25.4; Hyg.Fab.143,145; Pau.2.16.4).

Istrus 2 or Ister is the river Danube (Hes.The.339).

Ladon 1. River of western Arcadia. Ladon 1 is father of Metope 1, Carmentis and Thelpusa. Metope 1 married the river god Asopus. After Thelpusa a city in Arcadia was named. Carmentis was the first to foretell how great Aeneas' line would become. She consorted with Hermes and gave birth to wise Evander 2 (see Romulus) (Apd.3.12.6; Hes.The.338ff.; Pau.8.43.2, 8.25.1; Vir.Aen.8.336).

Marsyas is sometimes considered as a Satyr and sometimes as a river god.

Meander. River in Caria, southern Asia Minor. Meander is father of Cyanee, Samia and Calamos. Cyanee married Miletus, son of Apollo, as some call him, and had by him Byblis and Caunus who fell in love with each other. Samia married Ancaeus 2, the king of Samos, and had several children by him. Calamos fell in love with Carpos, a beautiful young man, and out of grief for the death of Carpos, he threw himself in the river Meander and sank. Thus he gave his form to the reeds which took his name (Hes.The.338ff.; Nonn.11.379; Ov.Met.9.452; Pau.7.4.1).

Mincius married Manto 1, daughter of Tiresias, a seeress and priestess of Apollo, and had by her a son Ocnus 2, who became an ally of Aeneas in Italy and founded the city of Mantua (Vir.Aen.10.191).

Nessus 1 (Hes.The.338ff.).

Nilus. The river in Egypt. Nilus is father of Anchinoe, Memphis 2 and Heracles 5. Anchinoe married King Belus 1 of Egypt and had famous children, among which are Aegyptus 1 and Danaus 1 (see DANAIDS). Her child Cepheus 1 became king of Ethiopia and father of Andromeda, the wife of Perseus 1. Agenor 1, another of her sons and father of Europa, emigrated to Phoenicia. Anchinoe is also mother of Phineus 1 and Phoenix 1. Phoenix 1 is cometimes called brother of Europa and sometimes her father. Memphis 2, after whom the city in Egypt was named, married Epaphus 1, the son of Zeus & Io. Heracles 5 is the compiler of the sacred books of Phrygia (Apd.2.1.4; Cic.ND.3.42; Hes.The.338ff.; Hyg.Ast.2.32).

Numicius. This is the Italian river who washed away Aeneas' mortal remains (Ov.Met.14.599).

Parthenius 1. River in northern Asia Minor emptying into the Black Sea (Hes.The.344).

Peneus. Thessalian river flowing from the foot of Pindus. Peneus is father of Daphne 1, who was turned into a laurel tree to escape Apollo who, being in love, pursued her. After Andreus 1, son of Peneus, the land Andreis in Boeotia was named. Hypseus 1, son of Peneus, became king of the LAPITHS. Peneus' daughter Stilbe consorted with Apollo and gave birth to Lapithus 1 and Centaurus, the father of the CENTAURS. Peneus married the naiad Creusa 3 (Dio.4.69.1; Hes.The.338ff.; Ov.Met.1.504; Pau.9.34.6; Pin.Pyth.9.14).

Phasis 1. This is the river Rion in Colchis (Georgia in the Caucasus). Phasis 1, who is also called son of Zeus, married Aea (Hes.The.340; Val.5.205, 5.425).

Rhesus 1. River in Asia Minor flowing from the mountains of Ida (Hes.The.340).

Rhine. Iberian river who came to Poseidon's and Beroe 5's wedding and brought gold as a gift (Nonn.43.410).

Rhodius. River in Asia Minor, flowing from Mount Ida (Hes.The.341).

Sangarius. River in Asia Minor flowing into the Black Sea. Sangarius is father by Metope 2 of Queen Hecabe 1 of Troy. He also had a daughter who took the fruit of an almond tree which had grown up from the sexual organ of Agdistis, which the gods had cut off, and found herself pregnant. He gave birth to Attis, a Lydian dear to the goddess Cybele (Rhea 1), who went mad and castrated himself (Apd.3.12.5; Hes.The.344).

Scamander 1. The river near Troy, who tried to stop Achilles' slaughter of Trojans. He is father of Teucer 2, King of the Teucrians, of Callirrhoe 3, mother of Ganymedes and other important Trojans, of Strymo, wife of King Laomedon 1 of Troy, and of Glaucia. This Glaucia was a Trojan girl who fell in love with Deimachus 4 when he was fighting against the Trojans. After his death in battle Glaucia, fearing detection, fled for refuge and told Heracles 1 (for this war is not the Trojan War, but Heracles 1's expedition against the city) of her association with Deimachus 4. Later, when she gave birth to a son, Heracles 1 delivered both the child and the mother to Eleon in Boeotia. Scamander 1's wife was Idaea 1 (Apd.3.12.1-3; Hes.The.345; Hom.Il.21.233; Plu.GQ.41).

Selemnus was a young man who was loved by the naiad Argyra, while he was still young and handsome; but later in time she would not visit him. He died of love and was turned into the river Selemnus by Aphrodite, who also made him forget Argyra. The river Selemnus is in Achaea (Pau.7.23.1-2).

Simois. A Trojan river, who made ambrosia spring up for the horses of Hera and Athena to eat, at the time of the Trojan War. Simois' daughter Astyoche 3 is, according to some, mother of Tros 1, who called the people of the land Trojans, after his own name. His other daughter Hieromneme is sometimes said to be the mother of Anchises 1, Aeneas' father (Apd.3.12.2; Hes.The.342; Hom.Il. 5.775ff.).

River gods

Sperchius. River in Thessaly, father of Menesthius 1, who led a company of the Myrmidons against Troy. Sperchius is also father of Dryops 1, after whom the Dryopes (people living between the Sperchius River and Mount Parnasus) are called. Some say Sperchius is the father of the NYMPHS, and that their mother is Dino, the daughter of Phorcus & Ceto 1 (Apd.3.13.4; Hom.Il.16.173; Lib.Met.22, 32).

Strymon 1. River in Thrace, father of Evadne 1 who married Argus 5, King of Argos. Rhesus 2, who came from Thrace to fight at Troy and died the day after his arrival, is also called son of Strymon 1. Others have mentioned Brangas and Olynthus as sons of Strymon 1 as well. He had also another daughter Tirine, mother by Ares of Thrassa, mother of Polyphonte, who despised Aphrodite and the goddess made her fall in love with a bear. Polyphonte's children by this bear, Agrius 6 and Orius 3, were giants who devoured men, but were finally turned into birds (Apd.1.3.4, 2.1.2; Con.4; Hes.The.339; Lib.Met.21).

Termessus. River which flows round Helicon (a mountain in western Boeotia). A spring in Boeotia is called after his daughter Aganippe 1 (Pau.9.29.5).

Tiberinus 1. The god of the river Tiber in Rome (Vir.Aen.8.33).

Triton (see also Divinities of Waters & Landscapes) (Apd.3.12.3; Arg.4.1601ff.; Hes.The.930; Hyg.Ast.2.23; Pau.7.22.8).

Xanthus 5. The River Scamander as men called it, or Xanthus as the gods named it (see Scamander 1 above in this list) (Hom.Il.21.2).

Related sections Divinities of Waters & Landscapes 

See above.