8008: Sphinx. Marble about AD 120-140. British Museum, London.
Creon 2 was Regent of Thebes after Oedipus' father Laius 1, and then again
after the death of Oedipus' son Eteocles 1. During his rule, he had to confront several calamities, among which that of the Sphinx. After the war of
the SEVEN AGAINST
THEBES, he plunged the land into conflict by
denying burial to his enemies.
The Slain Serpent
Many calamities befell Thebes in the course of
time, and the reason could be that the Theban
rulers offended the gods on several occasions. For
already the city's founder Cadmus succeeded in
provoking the anger of Ares, by slaying the god's
darling serpent that guarded the spring at Dirce,
close to the place where Thebes was founded. For
that exploit, Cadmus was
forced to serve Ares for
what was called an eternal year, and had to coexist
with the powerful clan of the SPARTI, who were born
from the sowed teeth of the slain serpent; moreover
at the end of his life, he and his wife were turned
into serpents, just as Athena had said:
"Why, Cadmus, do you gaze on the serpent you
have slain? You too shall be a serpent for men to
gaze on." (Athena to Cadmus. Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.97).
Capital of Misrule
After Cadmus came Pentheus 1, an
arrogant ruler whose bizarre ideas about law and
order made him oppose Dionysus 2, which led
him to his ruin. And as it often happens when
states are ruled by fools, outsiders took power in Thebes. But since these
were in no way wiser, and too easily found good
reasons to engage in war and commit other
atrocities, Thebes remained the capital of misrule.
The gods punish the city
King Labdacus 1 (Oedipus' grandfather)
was not better than Pentheus 1, and that
is why he was also slain by the MAENADS, attendants of Dionysus 2. But when Amphion 1,
a man whom Apollo loved,
came, prosperity reigned for some time. However,
and as it often happens, prosperity was followed by
arrogance, a particular branch of idiocy that might
affect some rulers, and those around them; and so
his wife, under the impression that her family's
power equalled her to the immortals, offended Leto. Consequently, this
goddess' sweet children, Apollo and Artemis, came down from
heaven, and by shooting their arrows against the NIOBIDS, left the royal
house desolate by plague. Such was the end of Amphion 1's dynasty.
Love of Wine
Now Laius 1 (Oedipus' father) was different from his own father Labdacus 1, and also from Pentheus 1, in
that he loved wine. It is
not know whether he asked "How good a wine?"; yet it is clear
that he did not ponder "How much wine?". For it was his
excessive intake of this divine beverage, which
made him disregard the counsel of Delphi. And that is why Laius 1, who was supposed
to avoid fathering a son, had one, who, as the
oracle had predicted, slew him.
First Regency of Creon 2
At the time, no one knew who had killed the king
of Thebes in some narrow road, not even the killer himself. It was then that Creon 2, sitting on the vacant throne, became ruler in Thebes. During his regency, Amphitryon arrived
with his fiancée Alcmena and her
half-brother Licymnius from Mycenae, seeking exile and purification for the death of his prospective father-in-law Electryon 1, whom he accidentally had killed. Creon 2 purified him, and received all three as exiles in Thebes. It was
then that Amphitryon gave his sister Perimede 2 as wife to Licymnius. These two had three sons, two of which fell in battle years later, fighting with Heracles 1 against King Eurytus 4 of Oechalia, a city of doubtful location. Licymnius himself, who was a bastard son of King Electryon 1 of Mycenae, and the only
among the brothers who did not die at the hands of
the sons of King Pterelaus of Taphos, was much
later accidentally killed by Heracles 1's son Tlepolemus 1 when the latter was beating a servant, and Licymnius ran in between.
When rancorous Alcmena arrived to Thebes, she declared that
she would not marry Amphitryon until he
avenged her brothers, who had died during the war
between Mycenae and
Taphos, one of the islands off the coast of
Acarnania in the western coast of Hellas. Amphitryon then, wishing to marry her but lacking resources for the campaign, asked Creon 2 to assist him.
The trouble with the fox
Now, bad times are replaced by good times only slowly and with hardships (although good times may turn into bad times expeditiously). And so the rule of Creon 2, in accordance with the Theban curriculum, began with tribulation. For as soon as he came to power, the wrath of Dionysus 2 was upon
the city in the shape of a fox that was fated never
to be caught. To this fox (known sometimes as the
Cadmean Fox) the Thebans each month exposed one
child in an attempt to prevent the beast to carry
Creon 2 helps Amphitryon against
"… there is no place for pride, when one is his neighbors' slave." (Sophocles, Antigone 479).
"… the good man craves a portion not equal to the evil's." (Sophocles, Antigone 520).
"You do not love someone you have hated, not even after death." (Sophocles, Antigone 522).
"While I live, no woman will rule me." (Sophocles, Antigone 525).
"It is for this that men pray: to sire and raise in their homes children who are obedient, that they may requite their father's enemy with evil and honor his friend, just as their father does." (Sophocles, Antigone 640).
"Never … banish your reason for pleasure on account of a woman…" (Sophocles, Antigone 640).
"… there is no evil worse than disobedience." (Sophocles, Antigone 673).
"It is better to fall from power, if it is fated, by a man's hand, than that we be called weaker than women." (Sophocles, Antigone 679).
"Shall Thebes prescribe to me how I must rule? … Am I to rule this land by the will of another than myself?" (Sophocles, Antigone 734).
"We must not wage vain wars with necessity." (Sophocles, Antigone 1105).
"Words may be many, and yet not to the point." (Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 808).
"Do not make commands where you are not the master." (Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 840).
"… the dead alone feel no galling pain." (Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 955).
"… anger knows no old age" (Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 954).
"… even troubles hard to bear will end in perfect peace if they find the right issue." (Sophocles, Oedipus the King 88).
"No mind will become false while it is wise." (Sophocles, Oedipus the King 600).
"… it is in season that all things are good." (Sophocles, Oedipus the King 1517).
So when Amphitryon asked Creon 2 for help, he replied that he would join the expedition against Taphos if Amphitryon would rid
the country of the plague that was ravaging it. Amphitryon then, not being able to cope with the un-get-at-able fox, obtained from Cephalus 1 the dog that his wife Procris 2 had received
from Minos 2, which was
fated to catch whatever it pursued. And although
the dilemma that arose when the two animals
confronted each other was of such nature that it
required the intervention of Zeus, the problem was nevertheless solved when the god turn both beasts into stone; and so Creon 2 helped Amphitryon, and when
the war was over Alcmena married her fiancé.
Creon 2 gives his daughters in marriage
Some time later Alcmena gave birth to Heracles 1, child of Zeus and not of Amphitryon, and when this son was grown up, he led the Thebans against Erginus 1, the king of the Minyans who imposed a tribute after his father was killed by Perieres 2, charioteer of Creon 2's father. It was then that Creon 2 rewarded Heracles 1 by giving him in marriage his own daughter Megara. These two had children: Therimachus, Deicoon 1, Creontiades, and Ophites 1, but they were all flung into the fire by their father, when he, in a fit of madness, gave himself to domestic violence. Some say that also Megara died at the hands of her husband, but others say that Heracles 1 gave her in marriage to his own nephew and charioteer Iolaus 1. It is also said that Creon 2 gave another and younger daughter to Amphitryon's son Iphicles, who already was father of Iolaus 1 by Automedusa, daughter of Alcathous 3, son of Pelops 1.
The most serious trial that Thebes had to confront under the first rule of Creon 2 was, however, the calamity of the Sphinx, which appeared laying waste the Theban fields, and declaring that it would not depart unless anyone interpreted a certain riddle which she presented. In order to face this adversity, Creon 2 made a proclamation throughout Hellas, promising that he would give the kingdom of Thebes and his sister
Jocasta in marriage to him who solved the riddle of
the Sphinx. And since when it comes to acquiring power,
property and women, there are always many willing
to take whatever risks they deem necessary, going
through no matter which atrocities, many came and
many were destroyed by the Sphinx, who gobbled them
up one by one as they proved ignorant of her
riddle. For that was the price of the attempt in
case of failure.
Creon 2's rewards Oedipus
But since also calamities must end some day, the Sphinx was finally
defeated by Oedipus, who, having heard Creon 2's proclamation, came to Thebes, and by solving the riddle, caused the beast to destroy itself. And since Creon 2 fulfilled his promise, Oedipus received both the throne of his own father, whom he had murdered for a trifle on a road not knowing who the man was, and Creon 2's sister Jocasta as wife, ignoring that this woman was his own mother. These are the bizarre gifts with which Creon 2 rewarded Oedipus for having
destroyed the Sphinx.
End of first rule
In this manner ended the first rule of Creon 2. And whereas some could say that his decisions on this important matter were evil, others would absolve him, arguing that Creon 2 ignored who Oedipus was. Therefore, they would say, Creon 2 cannot be blamed, as Oedipus cannot be blamed
either, who did not know who he himself was. And
since these two opinions cannot be reconciled a
third may appearagainst all
senseblaming the gods, or Fate, or Fortune, or whatever other
force, from above or below. And still others could maintain that Oedipus was in any case guilty of murder; for he killed, not one man but two, and for a trivial matter; and Creon 2 could be deemed to have been out of his mind when he offered both throne and queen to a complete unknown on the ground of one single merit. Therefore, they could add, both were guilty, not so much of the offences that made them famous, but of other faults; and being the one criminal, and the other incompetent, they were both punished and more calamities followed.
Now, while some debate these endless issues,
others learn, first: that Oedipus inherited the
throne of Thebes and
married his own mother, after unwittingly murdering
his own father; second: that his plight was
revealed in the course of time; and third: that he
had to step down from the throne that his
cleverness had earned.
Creon 2 to Delphi
reign, barrenness of wombs and crops fell upon Thebes, and as unease
spread among the Theban population, Oedipus sent Creon 2 to Delphi to learn by which
acts the troubles could be averted. At his return, Creon 2 informed that the oracle attributed all misfortunes to blood-guiltiness related to the death of Laius 1, and that the command of the god was to find Laius 1's unknown killer,
and bring him to justice. Oedipus had an
investigation started, but only to discover,
through the seer Tiresias, that he
himself was the man he was seeking, and the killer
of the former king. And since Tiresias,
as a seer, was a servant of Apollo, and it was from the god's temple that Creon 2 had brought the counsel that now the king, by carrying it out, saw turning against himself, Oedipus came to believe that Creon 2 and Tiresias were plotting
Creon 2 denies ambition of power
This was just a slanderous accusation in the eyes of Creon 2; for he knew that it was not under his instigation that Tiresias had said what
he had said. Nevertheless, Oedipus called him dishonest, intriguer, knave and false in front of the Theban Elders. It was then that Creon 2 denied, as if to calm the king's suspicion, any ambition of power:
"… would any man exchange a quiet life, with royal rank assured, for an uneasy throne? To be a king in name was never part of my ambition." (Creon 2 to Oedipus. Sophocles, Oedipus
the King 586).
Yet Oedipus was not persuaded, and considering him a plotter, he would have given Creon 2 a choice of death or banishment, had the Elders and Jocasta not intervened, asking for mercy on the ground of Creon 2's oath of innocence.
Soon was the truth revealed, and Oedipus had to step
down. Yet his abdication did not lead to peace and
prosperity in Thebes. For
his sons, who despised him on account of his
miserable position, had to hear in response to
their contempt the terrible curse that their father
uttered against them, when he said that they should
divide their inheritance by the sword, and that
their lot would be:
"… by a kinman's hand to die and slay." (Oedipus to
Polynices. Sophocles, Oedipus
at Colonus 1385).
And here again some could argue that curses cannot force anyone. Yet, although Eteocles 1 and Polynices (for these two are the sons of Oedipus by his own
mother Jocasta) attempted to escape the doom by
agreeing to reign in turn, year by year, they
proved unable to divide the kingdom by the counsel
of Equality; and listening instead to Ambition with
the same eagerness as they before had listened to
Contempt, the brothers caused both civil war and
foreign intervention, which is the folly remembered
as the war of the SEVEN
Foreign army at the gates
The coalition of the SEVEN, led by Polynices and six Argive chiefs, was more powerful and plentiful than the forces led by Eteocles 1, who then sat in the throne of Thebes. It should therefore have conquered the city. Yet the laws of war are not that simple; and when the enemy prepared to attack, Eteocles 1 bade Creon 2 to inquire of the seer Tiresias the best
course to win the war.
Tiresias' remedy to
save the city
Now SEERS often
prescribe strange remedies, and Tiresias, being no exception, declared that the city would be saved by sacrificing Menoeceus 2, son of Creon 2. On hearing this painful absurdity, said Creon 2:
"O great evil,
spoken so briefly!"
… and the following dialogue followed:
Tiresias: Evil to you, but to your
country great salvation.
Creon 2: I did not hear; I
never listened; I renounce my city!
Tiresias: The man is no longer himself; he is
Creon 2: Go in peace; it is
not your prophecy I need.
Tiresias: Is truth dead, because you are
unfortunate? (Euripides, Phoenician
This was a hard blow for Creon 2, and a reality difficult to grasp; for mortals seek power believing that glory and felicity naturally derive from it. So he asked the seer how this curse had come on him and his son, and Tiresias then explained why Menoeceus 2 had to be sacrificed thus:
chamber where the earth-born dragon kept watch over
Dirce's springs, he must be offered as a sacrifice
and shed his blood on the ground, a libation of Cadmus, because of the ancient wrath of Ares, who now avenges the slaughter of
his earth-born snake. If you do this, you shall win Ares as an ally. If the earth receives fruit for fruit and human blood for blood, you shall find her kind to you again, who once sent up to us a crop of Sown-men with golden helmets; for one of those born from the dragon's teeth must die. Now you are our only survivor of the Sown race, pure-blooded both on your mother's and your father's side, you and your sons. Haemon's marriage holds him back from the slaughter, for he is no longer single; even if he has not consummated his marriage, yet he is betrothed. But this tender youth, consecrated to his city, might by dying rescue his country; and bitter will he make the return of Adrastus and his Argives (…) Choose one of these two destinies: either save the city or your son." (Tiresias to Creon 2. Euripides, Phoenician
Creon 2's son sacrifices himself
This was too much, even for Creon 2, and he would probably have died in his son's stead, could Fate be circumvented. He wished to send Menoeceus 2 away to a safer place; for Tiresias had said that
he would tell the Thebans how the case stood. But
the young man, who also had heard the seer's words,
did not wish to be surrendered to cowardice and
thereby deprive the city of its only chance; and
believingas Youth often doesthat the future and prosperity of
states may depend on the willingness of each
citizen to present their cities with their own
lives, he went alone to the topmost battlements,
and plunging a sword through his throat, fell down
over the spot described by Tiresias.
To pay honor to the dead
It was in this way that Menoeceus 2 won admiration; but had he preserved his life, no one among the Thebans had pardoned him, and most citizens had called him traitor, coward, and base, arguing that others, whom no oracle has called, stand nevertheless side by side in the battlefield, defying death to defend their city. As for Creon 2, he did not know whether to rejoice on behalf of the city and the name of his son, or to mourn because of the loss of his child. And feeling pious, reverent and god-fearing in front of death, he went to his sister Jocasta to let her bathe his son's corpse; for he reasoned that:
"… those who are not dead must reverence the god below by paying honor to the dead." (Creon 2. Euripides, Phoenician
… a sacred law that he shortly after neglected, by denying burial to his enemies, and asserting:
"… it is fruitless labor to revere the dead." (Creon 2. Sophocles, Antigone 780).
Second Rule of Creon 2
This is the strange way by which the city was saved, and the defenders, led by Eteocles 1, won the war. However, the brothers, fulfilling their father's curse, killed each other. It was after their death that Creon 2uncle of both, but ally of Eteocles 1having found again the throne vacant, began his second rule (as regent and protector of the crown prince Laodamas 2, son of Eteocles 1), since he was not only victorious but also alivea most sweet combination of terms.
To heal wounds
Now, the adversities that incompetent
administrations, no matter how perverted, might
cause during peacetime, are lavishly surpassed by
the afflictions that are the sequel of war. For
besides common miseries, the shadows of virulent
suspicion follow in the train of war along with the
bitterness of malignant rancour, pestering the
minds with the infected sores that the vexations
and the cruelties of open violence caused. And that
may last for a whole generation, or two, or more,
often sowing the seeds from which new armed men
grow ready to fight, as if they were SPARTI. Knowing this, the
great victor hastens to exercise clemency, and
promptly turns into a healer of wounds, as Cyrus
the Elder did when he defeated Croesus, for the benefit
Creon 2 loses perspective
But great victors are few, and Creon 2 was not one of them. And lacking generosity, or perhaps being bitter for the loss of his son, he became the prey of fear or anger, letting himself be defeated by his own victory. To begin with, he seemed to fear the dead, or else his anger against his enemies knew no moderation, or else he wished to show, as a warning to others, the far reaching consequences that awaited those who opposed his rule.
Proclamation about burial of enemies
And for one of these reasons, or for all of them, or for other more difficult to conceive, Creon 2 issued a government proclamation forbidding the burial of the dead enemy soldiersboth Thebans and Argivesthat were lying on the fields outside the city. Such was the extent of his hate towards them; and in order to see the outrageous order obeyed, he set guards, expressing himself very clearly on this matter:
"To all the
race of Cadmus shall this be proclaimed: 'Whoever
is caught decking his corpse with wreaths or giving
it burial, shall be requited with death.'" (Creon 2's proclamation. Euripides, Phoenician
Resistance of Antigone 2
One of the unburied was Oedipus' son Polynices,
counted among the SEVEN
AGAINST THEBES, and the man who, after being
banished from Thebes by his brother Eteocles 1, married a princess of Argos, and persuaded her father to help him recover the kingdom by mustering an army together with other Argive kings. To make laws over helpless corpses seemed absurd to Polynices' sister Antigone 2, and she asked the new ruler with which authority he had so proclaimed:
Creon 2: This
was Eteocles' purpose, not mine.
Antigone 2: It is senseless, and you are
a fool to obey it!
Creon 2: How so? Isn't it
right to carry out his commands?
Antigone 2: No; not if they are wrong and
ill-advised. (Euripides, Phoenician
All respect denied
The loving sister begged to be allowed to bathe Polynices' body, and to bandage his wounds. But since that would have meant to pay honor to the corpse, which the city had forbidden, Creon 2 did not grant permission. For Good, he thought, should pursue Evil beyond death, rewarding the faithful servant of his country, dead or alive, and punishing forever those who went against it. Therefore he denied Polynices a grave, resolving that he was to be left unburied to be eaten by dogs and vultures, who had raised his hand against the motherland.
Creon 2 and his son Haemon 1
But since fear had no place in Antigone 2's heart, she went by herself and covered with earth Polynices corpse, or else she dragged him to a funeral pyre. In any case (for the accounts are many), Antigone 2 defied the authority of Creon 2. To make things worse this girl was the bride of Creon 2's son Haemon 1. Now, some fathers might reflect twice before taking a girl from their own son's arms. But not Creon 2; for he was of the opinion that a father's will should always take the first place in a son's heart. And so Creon 2 took upon himself the ungrateful task of persuading his son of the necessity to send his young bride to the next world for the crime of burying her brother.
Haemon 1's exhortation
Haemon 1 was not persuaded, and instead he thought that his father was on the verge of committing an atrocity by dooming Antigone 2 to death for the action, rather honourable, of burying a brother. And as he deemed this act likely to dishonour his own father, Haemon 1 exhorted him to reflect again.
Creon 2's condemns Antigone 2
Now, just as authority is reluctant to receive instructions from subordinates, senior citizens do not like to take lessons from young fellows. And so Creon 2, paying less heed to the matter of right and wrong than to the matter of age, found his son's opinions despicable, and proceeded forward:
"I will take her where the path is deserted, unvisited by men, and entomb her alive in a rocky vault …" (Creon 2 to the Theban Elders. Sophocles, Antigone 774).
Also old Tiresias came to him appealing:
claim of the dead. Do not kick at the fallen. What
prowess is it to kill the dead all over
again? (Tiresias to Creon 2. Sophocles, Antigone 1030).
But Creon 2 nevertheless enforced law and authority and, as he saw it, his own position as head of the State. Soon he learned, however, that his son Haemon 1 had killed himself, following his bride to death. And after him, his wife Eurydice 12 took her own life with a sword, when she learned that her son was dead. For, as they say, riches and rank are empty where there is no joy, being like unsubstantial shadows compared with happiness of heart. And the crown of happiness, they say, is wisdom, whereas arrogant men suffer, either in public or in private, heavy blows. For whatever folly, also that which cares for good principles in excess, leads to sorrow and confusion; and that is why Creon 2 found himself saying:
"Lead me away,
I beg you, a rash, useless man. I have murdered
you, son, unwittingly, and you, too, my wife. I
know not where I should turn, where look for help." (Creon 2 to the Theban Elders. Sophocles, Antigone 1339).
Alleged fate of Antigone 2
Yet others assert that Antigone 2 and Haemon 1 did not die on this occasion, but much later. They tell instead that when she broke the law, Creon 2 bade Haemon 1 to execute her, but he, disobeying his father, entrusted her to shepherds, falsely claiming that he had slain her. In time Haemon 1 married her, and had a son by her. When this son, who could be Maeon 1, grew up and came to the games at Thebes, Creon 2 recognized him by the dragon mark in his body, which all descendants of the SPARTI bore. It is said
that even Heracles 1's intercession begging Creon 2 to pardon his son was in vain; and when Haemon 1 witnessed once more his father's inexorability and unceasing anger, he chose death, killing himself and his wife.
War with Athens
But still others say that Creon 2 did not live enough to see a grown up grandson, and that the conflict caused by his denying burial to the Argivesan offence to men and godsprovoked yet a foreign intervention, which led to his death at the hands of Theseus. For Adrastus 1, the
surviving leader of the SEVEN, and the
Argive wives came to Athens, not to complain
about the death of their husbands at Thebes, since that, they reasoned, is the law of war, but to protest against Creon 2's denial of funeral fire and the last rites of death. On hearing about the outrage, Theseus sent the herald Phegeus 7 with an olive-branch and a simple message:
". . . that
the Argives must burn, or Thebes must fight." (Theseus to the Thebans.
Statius, Thebaid 12.598).
Athenian army outside Thebes
This is how Thebes,
which had just gained peace at a high price of
blood, lost it again. For Theseus, who now saw himself as the defender of the laws of all nations and the covenants of heaven, marched immediately against Creon 2 with a powerful host that was persuaded of the worth and justice of the enterprise behind him; so that while the olive-branch was being waved by his herald inside Thebes, his army paraded
The demonstration did not impress Creon 2; for Thebes had just obtained
victory and ruined Argos. That, he thought, should be a warning to the Athenians. They say that Creon 2 did not engage in battle over the bodies of the fallen Argive soldiers; but they add that he abstained not because of his piety, but because he wished the coming carnage to be greater on a virgin field. It was in this battle that Creon 2 lost his life; and they tell that on killing him Theseus said:
"Now are you
pleased to give dead foes the fire that is their
due? Now will you bury the vanquished? Go to your
dreadful reckoning, yet be assured of your own
burial." (Theseus to Creon 2. Statius, Thebaid 12.779).
Thus were the Thebans defeated, and terror
spread in the city which feared plunder. But since
the purpose of the war was other than conquest, Theseus declared before
"I have not
marched from Athens to destroy this town …but to demand the dead for burial." (Theseus. Euripides, Suppliants).
Yet the Thebans have been reported to affirm
that they voluntarily gave up the dead for burial,
denying that they ever engaged in battle against Theseus. Others have said that Creon 2 met his end in completely different circumstances, being murdered by Lycus 6, a descendant of Lycus 5 from Dirphys in Euboea, when he, seeing Thebes weakened by dissension, seized power in the city. Creon 2 was, at that time, the protector of Heracles 1's family
while the latter was performing his LABOURS. Lycus 6 planned to murder Amphitryon, Creon 2's daughter Megara, and her children by Heracles 1 as well,
"… I am well aware I slew Creon, the father of this woman, and am in possession of his throne. So I have no wish that these children should grow up and be left to take vengeance on me in requital for what I have done." (Lycus 6. Euripides, Heracles 166).
However, Lycus 6, son of Poseidon, was prevented
by Heracles 1, who
killed him at his return.
Thebes after Creon 2
In any case, at the death of Creon 2, the throne of Thebes devolved on Laodamas 2, son of Eteocles 1. And it was during his reign that the sons of the SEVEN AGAINST
THEBES, known as the EPIGONI, led their
armies for a second time against Thebes, which they captured and handed over to Polynices' son Thersander 1.
What remained many years later
The traveller Pausanias (c. AD 150) claims to have seen still flourishing on the tomb of Creon 2's son Menoeceus 2 the pomegranate-tree that there grew with fruits red like blood inside. Not far away from it, he also saw, marked by a pillar with a stone shield upon it, the place where the brothers Eteocles 1 and Polynices slew each other. Pausanias adds that the whole area was called "the Dragging of Antigone"; for it was here that she dragged her brother Polynices' corpse up to the burning pyre of Eteocles 1, throwing him on it.
Others with identical name
- Creon 1 was son of Heracles 1 by one
of the many daughters of Thespius.
- Creon 3 is the king of Corinth who betrothed his daughter Glauce 4 to Jason.