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Location of Mycenae, Tiryns and Argos

"Mycenae, the leader of the Greeks in the Trojan war, and Nineveh, where was the royal palace of the Assyrians, are utterly ruined and desolate ... Of the opulent places in the ancient world, Egyptian Thebes and Minyan Orchomenus are now less prosperous than a private individual of moderate means...Of Babylon that was the greatest city of its time under the sun nothing remains but the wall. The case of Tiryns in the Argolid is the same. These places have been reduced by heaven to nothing." (Pausanias, Description of Greece 8.33.2).

Mycenae is a city in Argolis north of Argos. According to tradition, Mycenae was founded by Perseus 1 when, after delivering Andromeda, he became king in Tiryns.

Origin of the name "Mycenae"

Antinous 2, one of the SUITORS OF PENELOPE, recalled that the city of Mycenae was named after Mycene, a beauty of former times, daughter of the river god Inachus and mother of the all-seeing Argus 1. However, some have asserted that the city was named after Myceneus, son of Sparton 2, son of Phoroneus. This Phoroneus has the reputation of being the first man. He was king of what was later called the Peloponnesus. But some say that when Perseus 1 exchanged kingdoms (Tiryns against Argos), he founded Mycenae and called the city so because on its site the cap (myces) fell from his scabbard, and he regarded this as a sign to found a city. It is also said that Perseus 1, being thirsty, picked up a mushroom (myces), and drinking the water that flowed from it, named the site Mycenae. The city wall and the gate, upon which stand lions are said to be the work of the CYCLOPES.

War with the Taphians (Teleboans)

At the beginning, the descendants of Perseus 1 reigned in Mycenae (see Throne Succession below). However, among Perseus 1's many sons was Mestor 1, who married Lysidice 2, daughter of Pelops 1, and had by her a daughter Hippothoe 3. Hippothoe 3 was seduced by Poseidon, and Taphius was born. Taphius colonized Taphos (which is in the islands off the coast of Acarnania), called the inhabitants Teleboans, and had a son Pterelaus. So at the time when Electryon 1, son of Perseus 1, was king of Mycenae, the sons of Pterelaus came with an army of Taphians and claimed what they called "the kingdom of Mestor 1," referring to their maternal grandfather. Electryon 1 rejected this claim, but the Taphians took away the cattle, and in a battle between the sons of Pterelaus and the sons of Electryon 1, everyone was killed except Lycimnius—Electryon 1's youngest son—and Everes 3, the son of Pterelaus who had guarded the ships during the battle. After the battle, the Taphians sailed away, taking with them the cattle and entrusting them to King Polyxenus 1 of Elis. Amphitryon, grandson of Perseus 1, brought the cattle back to Mycenae, and Electryon 1 decided to entrust the kingdom to him as he purposed to make war on the Taphians to avenge his sons' death. And along with the kingdom, he entrusted to him his daughter Alcmena, on condition that he would keep her a virgin until his return. But when Amphitryon restored the cattle, one of the cows went mad and charged. Amphitryon then threw a club at the cow but it rebounded from the cow's horns, striking Electryon 1 and killing him. This is the reason why Amphitryon was banished from Mycenae and the whole of Argolis by the successor of Electryon 1, King Sthenelus 3, another son of Perseus 1.

Amphitryon leaves Mycenae

Amphitryon left for Thebes together with Alcmena, but as she would not marry him until he had avenged her brothers' death, he engaged in war against the Taphians and it was just before his return to Thebes that Zeus, assuming his likeness, consorted with Alcmena, who later gave birth to Heracles 1.

The Pelopides take over

6701: The Lion Gate at Mycenae.

It was the son of Sthenelus 3 by Nicippe 1 (another daughter of Pelops 1), Eurystheus, who later imposed the LABOURS on Heracles 1. Eurystheus succeeded his father, and from this moment Mycenae was ruled by the Pelopides (see Pelopides and HERACLIDES to follow the reigns of Atreus, Thyestes 1, Agamemnon, Aegisthus, Aletes 1, Orestes 2, and Tisamenus 2 until the return of the HERACLIDES). Agamemnon was king of Mycenae at the time of the Trojan War (for other Mycenaeans who fought in that war see also Map ACHAEANS & TROJANS which also shows the aproximate territory ruled from Mycenae).


Sicyon became a vassal state under the rule of Agamemnon during the kingship of Hippolytus 5, a descendant of Heracles 1. When Lacestades, son of Hippolytus 5, succeeded to the throne of Sicyon, it occurred the return of the HERACLIDES. Phalces 2, the general of the HERACLIDES, surprised Sicyon by night but spared Lacestades because he too was one of the HERACLIDES, and made him partner in the kingdom. Phalces 2 was son of Temenus 2, son of Aristomachus 2, son of Cleodaeus 2, son of Hyllus 1, son of Heracles 1. Mycenae lost importance after the return of the HERACLIDES. Succesive invasions laid waste the city, and what remained of it was finally destroyed by the Argives, who were jealous of the Mycenaean participation in the famous adventure at Thermopylae during the Persian wars, in historical times.


In the ruins of Mycenae could be seen a fountain called Persea, and underground chambers belonging to Atreus and his descent, in which they stored their treasures. There are as well the graves of Atreus, Agamemnon and others, who after their return from Troy, were murdered by Aegisthus at a banquet.

Throne Succession of Argos and Mycenae Chronologically combined

Family symbols
(see also Three Main Ancestors)

= Descendants of Io.


= Descendants of Deucalion 1.


= Descendants of Atlas.

Argos and Mycenae

City of Phoroneus


Son of the river god Inachus.

Argus 5

Son of Zeus and Niobe 1.

Phorbas 1

Son of Argus 5 and Evadne 1, daughter of the river god Strymon 1.

Triopas 1

Son either of Phorbas 1, or of Peranthus 2.

Iasus 3

Son of Argus 5 and Ismene 1, or of Triopas 1. Ismene 1 is daughter of the river god Asopus.


Son of Agenor 12, son of Triopas 1.


Son of Sthenelas, son of Crotopus, son of Agenor 12.

Danaus 1

New dynasty. Danaus 1 is son of Belus 1, a king in Egypt, son of Libya, son of Epaphus 1, son of Io (see also DANAIDS).

Abas 2

Son of Lynceus 2 and Hypermnestra 1, one of the DANAIDS.


Son of Abas 2 and Aglaia 2, daughter of Mantineus 1.

Perseus 1, founder of Mycenae

Son of Zeus and Danae, or of Proetus 1 and Danae.

Megapenthes 2
Electryon 1
Megapenthes 2 is son of Proetus 1 and Stheneboea. Proetus 1 is brother of Acrisius.
Electryon 1 is son of Perseus 1 and Andromeda.
Sthenelus 3
Anaxagoras is son either of Megapenthes 2, or of Argeus 1, son of Megapenthes 2.
Sthenelus 3 is son of Perseus 1 and Andromeda.
Three kingdoms of Argos

Son of Sthenelus 3 and Nicippe 1, daughter of Pelops 1.

Alector 1
Bias 1
Melampus 1
Alector 1 is son of Anaxagoras.
Bias 1 is son of Amythaon 1, son of Cretheus 1, son of Aeolus 1.
Melampus 1 is brother of Bias 1.
Atreus is son of Pelops 1 and Hippodamia 3.
Iphis 1
Antiphates 3
Thyestes 1
Iphis 1 is son of Alector 1.
Talaus is either son of Bias 1, or of Cretheus 1, son of Aeolus 1
Antiphates 3 is son of Melampus 1 and Iphianira 1, daughter of Megapenthes 2.
Thyestes 1 is son of Pelops 1 and Hippodamia 3.
Sthenelus 2
Adrastus 1

Sthenelus 2 is son of Capaneus and Evadne 2, daughter of Iphis 1.
Adrastus 1 is son of Talaus.
Oicles is son either of Antiphates 3, or of Mantius, son of Melampus 1.
Agamemnon is son of Atreus.
Aegialeus 1
Aegialeus 1 is son of Adrastus 1.
Amphiaraus is son of Oicles and Hypermnestra 2, or of Apollo and Hypermnestra 2, daughter of Thestius 1.
Amphilochus 1


Amphilochus 1 is son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle.

Reunification of Argos

Aegisthus is son of Thyestes 1.

Aletes 1
Cylarabes is son of Sthenelus 2.
Aletes 1 is son of Aegisthus.

Orestes 2

Son of Agamemnon.

Tisamenus 2

Son of Orestes 2.

Return of the HERACLIDES
Temenus 2

Son of Aristomachus 2, son of Cleodaeus 2, son of Hyllus 1, son of Heracles 1.


Son of Antimachus 2, son of Thrasyanor, son of Ctesippus 4, son of Heracles 1.


Son of Temenus 2.

Medon 8

Son of Cisus.

Phoroneus is called "the first man". Son of the river god Inachus, either by Melia or by Argia 3 (OCEANIDS) (Aes.Supp.262; Apd.1.7.6, 2.1.1; DH.1.11.2, 1.17.3; Hyg.Fab.143, 145; Nonn.32.67; Parth.1.1, 1.3, 1.6.; Pau.1.39.5, 1.44.6, 2.5.6-7, 2.16.4, 2.21.1, 2.22.5, 2.34.4, 2.35.4; Pla.Tim.22).

Argus 5 called the Peloponnesus, where he regined, after himself Argos. He was son of Zeus and Niobe 1, daughter of Phoroneus. Argus 5 had children by Evadne 1, daughter of the river god Strymon 1: Ecbasus, Piras 1, Epidaurus, Criasus 1, Phorbas 1, and Tiryns. And by Ismene 1, daughter of the river god Asopus, he became the father of Argus 1 (Apd.2.1.1-3; Pau.2.16.1, .2.25.8, 2.26.2).

Phorbas 1. King of Argos after his father Argus 5 (son of Zeus and Niobe 1). His mother was Evadne 1, daughter of Strymon 1 (one of the RIVER GODS). Phorbas 1 is father of Triopas 1, also king of Argos (Apd.2.1.1-2; Pau.2.16.1).

Triopas 1 (Triops). King of Argos. He was son either of Phorbas 1 (his predecessor on the throne), or of Peranthus 2, otherwise unknown. His children were: Iasus 3, Agenor 12, Pelasgus 2, and Messene (Hyg.Fab.124; Pau.2.16.1, 2.22.1, 4.1.1).

Iasus 3. King of Argos and father of Io. Iasus 3 was son either of Argus 1 and Ismene 1, or of Triopas 1 (Apd.2.1.3; Pau.2.16.1).

Crotopus. King in Argolis (see also Argos). Crotopus was son of Agenor 12, son of Triopas 1, son of Phorbas 1, son of Argus 5, son of Zeus and Niobe 1, daughter of Phoroneus, the first man. Crotopus had a son Sthenelas, and a daughter Psamathe 2 (Pau.2.16.1, 2.19.8).

Gelanor. This is the king of Argos against whom Danaus 1 sailed from Egypt. He surrendered the kingdom to Danaus 1. Gelanor was son of Sthenelas, son of Crotopus, son of Agenor 12, son of Triopas 1 (see also DANAIDS) (Apd.2.1.4; Pau.2.16.1).

Danaus 1, son of Belus 1 and Anchinoe, felt threatened by his brother Aegyptus 1 and his fifty sons, and decided that he and his fifty daughters (the DANAIDS) would leave Egypt and emigrate to Argos, the country of their ancestor Io. In order to accomplish his plan, Danaus 1 built a ship, being the first to build one, as some affirm (Aes.Supp. passim; Apd.2.1.4, 2.1.5ff.; Hyg.Fab.168, 170; Nonn.3.296, 3.303; Strab.1.2.34).

Abas 2 was son of Lynceus 2 (son of Aegyptus 1) and Hypermnestra 1 (daughter of Danaus 1) (Apd.2.2.1, Pau.2.16.2, 2.12.2, 2.25.5, 10.35.1).

Acrisius. King of Argos, who quarrelled with his twin brother Proetus 1 while they were still in the womb. Later, when they were grown up, they waged war for the kingdom, and in the course of it they were the first to invent shields. Acrisius won the war and drove Proetus 1 from Argos. Later an oracle said that his daughter would give birth to a son who would kill him. Fearing that, Acrisius built a brazen chamber and there he guarded Danae. But having learned that his daughter had anyway been seduced, he put her and her child Perseus 1 in a chest and cast it into the sea. Much later Perseus 1 killed him, as they say accidentally, with a discus (see Argos and Perseus 1). Some say Acrisius' wife was Eurydice 2, daughter of Lacedaemon, son of Zeus and the Pleiad Taygete; but others say his wife was Aganippe 2, otherwise unknown. By one of them she had two daughters: one of them was Danae and the other was Evarete, who some call wife of Oenomaus 1, father of Hippodamia 3, wife of Pelops 1. (Apd.2.2.1-2, 2.4.1-2, 2.4.4; Hyg.Fab.63, 84).

Perseus 1 (here rescuing Andromeda) founded Mycenae. 7106: Perseus frees Andromeda from the sea-monster. Pompei, casa dei Dioscuri. National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

Perseus 1 was, as a child, cast into the sea in a chest together with his mother Danae, whom Zeus had visited in the form of a stream of gold when she was held isolated. By accident, they say, Perseus 1 killed his grandfather, the man who had sent him and his mother into exile. Perseus 1 beheaded Medusa 1, and having married Andromeda, he founded the city of Mycenae, where he became king (Apd.2.4.1-5; Dio.4.9.1; Hes.SH.216; Hyg.Ast.2.12; Hyg.Fab.244; Pau.2.16.3, 3.2.2, 3.20.6; Pin.Pyth.10.45).

Megapenthes 2. King of Argos. When Perseus 1 had accidentally killed his father in law Acrisius, he was ashamed to come to Argos and claim the inheritance of the man who had died by his hand; so instead he went to Megapenthes 2 at Tiryns and effected an exchange of kingdoms with him, surrendering Argos into his hands. In this way Megapenthes 2 reigned over the Argives, and Perseus 1 reigned over Tiryns. Some have said that it was Megapenthes 2 who ended the life of Perseus 1, who was his cousin, since Megapenthes 2's father was Proetus 1, brother of Acrisius; his mother was Stheneboea, the daughter of a Lycian king. Some say that Megapenthes 2 had a son Argeus 1, in turn father of Anaxagoras, also king of Argos; but others say that Anaxagoras was the child of Megapenthes 2, as also was Iphianira 1, who married Melampus 1 (one of the SEERS) (Apd.2.2.2, 2.4.4; Dio.4.68.4-5; Pau.2.16.3, 2.18.4).

Electryon 1. Son of Perseus 1 and Andromeda, and king of Mycenae. During his reign Mycenae was at war with Taphos (the island off the coast of Acarnania), and in the course of this war most of his sons were slain. Electryon 1 was accidentally killed by his prospective son-in-law Amphitryon, who threw a club at a cow and, when it rebounded from the cow's horns, hit Electryon 1 and killed him. Electryon 1 is father of Alcmena either by his niece Anaxo 1, daughter of Alcaeus 1, brother of Electryon 1; or by Eurydice 11, daughter of Pelops 1; or by Lysidice 2, also daughter of Pelops 1. Anaxo 1 bore him as well the following children: Stratobates, Gorgophonus, Phylonomus, Celaeneus 1, Amphimachus 2, Lysinomus, Chirimachus, Anactor, and Archelaus 3. He had by Midea 1, a Phrygian woman, a bastard son Licymnius, called sometimes son of Ares (see also Alcmena, Amphitryon and Mycenae) (Apd.2.4.5-6; Dio.4.9.1, 4.58.7; Eur.Her.16; Plu.The.7.1).

Anaxagoras. King of Argos. It was under his reign that the women were smitten with madness. As it is said they were cured by Melampus 1, who received then two-thirds of the kingdom in return for his assistance. Anaxagoras is called either son of Argeus 1, or son of Megapenthes 2. Argeus 1 was son of Megapenthes 2, who in turn was son of Proetus 1, uncle of Danae. Anaxagoras had a son Alector 1, who was also king of Argos (Dio.4.68.4; Pau.2.18.4-5).

Sthenelus 3. King of Mycenae and Tiryns. When Amphitryon accidentally killed Electryon 1, Sthenelus 3 laid hold of this event to banish Amphitryon from the whole of Argos, while he himself seized the throne of Mycenae and Tiryns. He was son of Perseus 1 and Andromeda; and having married Nicippe 1 (daughter of Pelops 1), had children by her: Alcyone 3, Medusa 2, and Eurystheus. Sthenelus 3 was killed by Hyllus 1, son of Heracles 1 (Apd.2.4.5-6; Hyg.Fab.244).

Eurystheus sat on the throne of Mycenae and Tiryns, a position that Zeus had reserved for Heracles 1 but that fell to his share thanks to Hera's deft manoeuvres. Following Heaven's arrangements, Eurystheus became the tormentor of Heracles 1, ordering him to perform his LABOURS. After Heracles 1's death, Eurystheus, fearing his rival's descendants, pursued them, and attempted their annihilation until he was defeated in battle (Apd.2.4.5, 2.5.9, 2.8.1, 3.9.2; Dio.4.9.5, 4.57.6; Eur.Her.19; Eur.Hcl.111ff. and passim; Pau.1.32.6, 1.44.9; Pin.Pyth.9.79; Strab.8.6.19).

Alector 1 was king of Argos. His father was Anaxagoras, son either of Argeus 1 or of Megapenthes 2, son of Proetus 1, son of Abas 2, son of Lynceus 2, who married one of the DANAIDS. Alector had a son Iphis 1, who also reigned in Argos (Apd.3.6.2; Pau.2.18.5).

Bias 1. King of Argos at the time when there were three kingdoms of Argos. One of the other kings was his own brother Melampus 1. After Bias 1, they say, a river in Messenia is called. Bias 1 was son of Amythaon 1, son of Cretheus 1, son of Aeolus 1. His mother was either Idomene, daughter of Pheres 1, son of Cretheus 1, or Aglaia 5. Some say that Bias 1 married one of the daughters of Proetus 1 (Danae's uncle), but others say her wife was Pero 2, daughter of Neleus. By one of them Bias 1 had children: Anaxibia 2, Leodocus, Arius 1, and Talaus (Apd.1.9.10-11, 2.2.2; Arg.1.118; Dio.4.68.3-4; Hdt.9.34; Pau.4.34.4).

Melampus 1 was an excellent soothsayer able to understand the language of birds and worms. He was the first to devise a cure by means of drugs and purifications. Son of Amythaon 1, son of Cretheus 1, son of Aeolus 1, son of Hellen 1, son of Deucalion 1, the man who survived the Flood. Melampus 1 became king of Argos. Melampus 1's wife was either Iphianira 1 or Pero 2; by one of them he had children: Abas 3, Antiphates 3, Mantius, Bias 5, Pronoe 3, Manto 3, and Thiodamas 3 (Apd.1.9.11-13, 2.2.2; Dio.4.68.3-5; Hdt.2.49; Hes.GE.12; Hom.Od.15.242; Prop.2.4.51-53; Stat.Theb.3.453, 8.279; Vir.Geo.3.550).

Atreus, son of Pelops 1 and Hippodamia 3, lost the throne of Mycenae when his wife betrayed him with his own brother. But when Zeus sent a portent, letting the sun set in the east, Atreus gained the throne. Yet he, still craving revenge, used his power to commit even worse crimes, which led to his fall. Atreus was father of Agamemnon and Menelaus who, for being his sons, are called the Atrides (Apd.Ep.2.10-14, 3.12; Cic.ND.3.27.68; Eur.IT.3; Eur.Ore.11; Hyg.Fab.85, 86, 88, 258; Ovid, Artis Amatoriae 1.327; Ovid, Tristia 2.391; Pau.2.18.1, 2.29.4, 6.20.7; Stat.Theb.4.306; Strab.1.2.15)

Iphis 1. One of the three kings of Argos (at the time when there were three kingdoms in Argos). He knew that the way to persuade Amphiaraus to join the SEVEN AGAINST THEBES was to bribe his wife, and told it to Polynices. Iphis 1 was son of Alector 1, son of Anaxagoras. His son Eteoclus joined the SEVEN, and so did his son-in-law Capaneus who was married to Iphis 1's daughter Evadne 2 (Apd.3.6.2-3, 3.7.1; Eur.Supp. passim).

Talaus. King of Argos. Son of Bias 1 & Pero 2, or of Cretheus 1 & Tyro. Talaus was wounded by Orides, a Bebrycian, during the trip of the ARGONAUTS but survived. At his death he was buried in Argos (Apd.1.9.13, 3.6.3; Arg.1.118, 2.110; Hdt.5.67; Hyg.Fab.70; Pau.2.6.6, 2.21.2, 8.25.9; Stat.Theb.5.406; Val.1.358).

Antiphates 3. King of one of the three kingdoms of Argos. Antiphates 3 was son of the soothsayer Melampus 1, son of Amythaon 1, son of Cretheus 1, son of Aeolus 1. His mother was Iphianira 1, daughter of Megapenthes 2, son of Proetus 1, who is also father of Danae. Antiphates 3 married Zeuxippe 4, daughter of Hippocoon 5, and had children by her: Oicles and Amphalces (Dio.4.68.5; Hom.Od.15.242-3).

Thyestes 1 consorted with Aerope 1, wife of his brother Atreus, and had a dispute with him concerning the kingdom of Mycenae, which led to his banishment. Also his sons were slaughtered by their uncle who served them at a banquet to Thyestes 1. Thyestes 1 was son of Pelops 1 and Hippodamia 3. He was father, by a naiad (Naiad 3), of Aglaus, Callileon, Orchomenus 4, Pelopia 4, Tantalus 3, and Plisthenes 2. He raped his daughter Pelopia 4 and she gave birth to Aegisthus (see also Atreus) (Apd.Ep.2.10-13; Eur.Ore.13; Hyg.Fab.86, 87, 88).

Sthenelus 2. Son of Capaneus (see SEVEN AGAINST THEBES). Sthenelus 2 is also counted among the SUITORS OF HELEN, the ACHAEAN LEADERS, and among those who were inside the WOODEN HORSE. His son Cometes 2 was Aegialia's lover during the absence of Diomedes 2 (Apd.3.7.2, 3.10.8; Apd.Ep.6.10; Eur.IA.246; Hom.Il.2.564; Hyg.Fab.97, 108; Pau.2.18.5; QS.12.314ff.; Vir.Aen.2.61).

Adrastus 1, king of Argos and son of Talaus, married his daughters to two exiles: Argia 1 to Theban Polynices, and Deipyle to Calydonian Tydeus 2. Having promised his sons-in-law to restore them both to their native lands he raised an army in order to march first against Thebes. He lost the war, but of all the SEVEN AGAINST THEBES he was the only to survive, saved by his horse (Apd.1.9.13, 3.6.1-8, 3.7.1; Dio.4.65.9; Eur.Supp. passim; Hdt.5.67ff.; Hyg.Fab.70, 73, 242; Pau.1.39.2, 1.43.1, 2.6.6, 10.25.7; Stat.Theb.2.141 and passim; Vir.Aen.6.480).

Oicles (Oecleus). King of Argos. He helped Heracles 1, during the latter's expeditions against Troy, where he was killed by King Laomedon 1 in battle, but others say that he met his end in Arcadia. Oicles is son either of Antiphates 3 (king of Argos before him) and Zeuxippe 4, or of Mantius (son of Melampus 1, one of the SEERS). By his wife Hypermnestra 2 he had children: Amphiaraus (one of the SEVEN AGAINST THEBES), Iphianira 2, and Polyboea 2 (Apd.2.6.4; Dio.4.32.3, 4.68.5; Hom.Od.15.243; Hyg.Fab.70, 73; Pau.6.17.6, 8.36.6).

Agamemnon was king of Mycenae and commander in chief of the coalition that attacked Troy. He is son of either of Plisthenes 1 & Aerope 1, or of Plisthenes 1 & Cleolla, or of Atreus & Aerope 1 (Soph.Aj. passim; Aes.Aga. passim; Eur.IA. passim; Eur.Hec. passim; Apd.Ep.2.16, 3.12, 6.23; Apd.3.2.1, 3.10.6; Eur.Ore.17; Eur.IT.4; Eur.IA.29; Eur.Hel.390; QS.14.210; Hes.CWE.69; Hdt.1.67, 4.103; Hom.Il. passim; Hom.Od.11.387, 11.409; Eur.Ele.9; RET.1; Pau.2.16.6; Hyg.Fab.121; Vir.Aen.7.723).

Aegialeus 1, son of Adrastus 1 (either by Amphithea 1, or by Demonassa 3). He married Comaetho 4, daughter of Tydeus 2 and sister of Diomedes 2. Diomedes 2, in turn, married Aegialeus 1's daughter Aegialia, who took a lover while Diomedes 2 was fighting at Troy. Some say that Cyanippus, one of the ACHAEAN LEADERS, is his son, but others say he is son of Adrastus 1. Adrastus 1 died of grief when he learned that his son Aegialeus 1 had perished in the battle at Glisas, killed by King Laodamas 2 of Thebes (Apd.1.8.6, 1.9.13, 3.7.2-3; Hdt.5.68; Hyg.Fab.71; Pau.2.18.4-5; Try.159).

Amphiaraus. Being a seer and foreseeing that all who joined Adrastus 1 against Thebes would perish, Amphiaraus refused at first to join the expedition but was finally forced to go to war. He was the assailant of the Homoloidian Gate at Thebes. When about to be killed by Periclymenus 3, Zeus saved him by splitting the earth. Amphiaraus vanished for ever and Zeus made him immortal. Amphiaraus was the son of Hypermnestra 2, either by Oicles, who sometimes is said to be his son instead, or by Apollo. He married hateful Eriphyle and had children by her: Alcmaeon 1, Amphilochus 1, Eurydice 9, Demonassa 4, Alexida, and perhaps Oicles. Amphiaraus joined the expedition of the ARGONAUTS and was among the CALYDONIAN HUNTERS (Aes.Sev.569; Apd.1.8.2, 1.9.13, 1.9.16, 3.6.2-3, 3.6.6-8, 3.7.2; Cic.ND.2.7; Dio.4.32.3; Hyg.Fab.70, 73; Pau.5.17.7, 8.45.7, 9.5.15; Pin.Nem.9.24, 10.9; Pin.Oly.6.13; Pin.Pyth.8.39ff.; Plu.GQ.23; Stat.Theb.3.470, 7.818ff., 8.1).

Amphilochus 1 is known, among other things, for having killed his own mother in conjunction with his brother (see Robe & Necklace of Harmonia 1). He is not always well distinguished from Amphilochus 2, son of Alcmaeon 1. Amphilochus 1 was the son of Amphiaraus and greedy Eriphyle. They say that he was killed by Apollo at Soli. Amphilochus 1 was one of the EPIGONI and is counted among the SUITORS OF HELEN (Apd.3.7.2-5, 3.10.8.; Hdt.3.91; Hes.Mel.1, 8; QS.14.366).

Aegisthus was the son of his own sister. He restored his father Thyestes 1 to the throne of Mycenae by killing his uncle Atreus. He never went to the Trojan War. Instead he took the wife and the throne of Agamemnon, the commander in chief of the Achaeans, during his absence. And although Agamemnon was far mightier, he succeeded in murdering him at his return from Troy, reigning in Mycenae for seven years until he was himself slain by Agamemnon's son Orestes 2 (Aes.Aga.1584; Aes.LB.passim; Apd.Ep.6.9, 6.25; Dictys 6.4; Eur.Ele.10; Hom.Od.1.35, 1.43, 1.300, 3.194, 3.235ff., 4.519ff., 11.389, 24.23, 24.98; Hyg.Fab.87, 88, 122; Pau.2.16.6-7, 2.18.2; Pin.Pyth.11.37; Soph.Ele.passim.).

Cylarabes became king of the Argives after the Trojan War, and was succeeded by Orestes 2. Cylarabes, a childless man, was son of Sthenelus 2, son of Capaneus, son of Hipponous 1 (Pau.2.18.5).

Aletes 1. Son of Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, who seized the kingly power in Mycenae when he heard the false rumour that said that Orestes 2 and Pylades had been sacrificed in Tauris. He was killed by Orestes 2 (Hyg.Fab.122).

Orestes 2. When Agamemnon returned from Troy, he was murdered by Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, and Aegisthus became king of Mycenae. But Orestes 2, whose life was now in danger, was smuggled away and given to the Phocian Strophius 1 to bring up. Years later, following the oracle of Delphi, Orestes 2 returned to Mycenae in company of Pylades, and killed both his mother and Aegisthus. But having become a matricide, he was pursued by the ERINYES, and afflicted with madness. He was also brought to trial in Athens for this crime, and being acquitted, he then came to Tauris (today called Crimea) to get rid of his mental disorder. Orestes 2, along with Pylades, was made prisoner in Tauris, but after being recognized by his sister Iphigenia, who acted as a priestess, he fled with her back to Hellas. In time Orestes 2 inherited his father's throne, and became the ruler of a wide territory including Mycenae, Argos, Messenia, the greater part of Arcadia, and Sparta (Aes.Eum.passim; Aes.LB.passim; Apd.Ep.2.16, 6.13-14, 6.24-28; Dictys 6.4; Eur.And.884 and passim; Eur.Ele.passim; Eur.IT.passim; Eur.Ore.23 and passim; Hyg.Fab.257; Pau.2.16.7, 2.18.6, Pau.2.29.4; Soph.Ele.passim.).

Tisamenus 2. Son of Orestes 2 and Hermione and king of Mycenae. It was under his reign that the HERACLIDES (Temenus 2 and Cresphontes) succeeded in returning to the Peloponnesus. Some say that he was killed by them, whereas others say that he was killed in battle against the Ionians. Tisamenus 2's children were: Daimenes, Sparton 1, Tellis, Leontomenes, and Cometes 4 (Apd.2.8.2-3; Pau.2.18.6-7, 7.1.8, 7.6.2).

Temenus 2. Son of Aristomachus 2. Father of Agelaus 3, Eurypylus 5, Callias and Hyrnetho. According to another version his children were: Cisus, Cerynes, Phalces 2, Agraeus 1, Isthmius 1 and Hyrnetho. Temenus 2 made the HERACLIDES masters of the Peloponnesus and received Argos as his part. Temenium, in Argive territory, was named after him. He favored in all matters his daughter Hyrnetho and her husband Deiphontes, and for this reason he was conspired against by his own sons who had him murdered (Apd.2.8.4-5; Pau.2.18.7, 2.28.3, 2.38.1, 4.3.7).

Deiphontes. Son of Antimachus 2. Deiphontes, who was married to Hyrnetho, daughter of Temenus 2, was openly employed as general in war and as adviser on all occasions by his father-in-law, who favored his daughter instead of his sons. This was disliked by the sons of Temenus 2, who in the course of a conspiracy killed their father. However the army decided that the kingdom belonged to Hyrnetho and Deiphontes. Deiphontes had children by Hyrnetho: Antimenes, Xanthippus 1, Argeus 2, and Orsobia (Apd.2.8.5; Pau.2.19.1, 2.28.3ff.).

Cisus. Son of Temenus 2. Father by Araethyrea of Phlias and Medon 8. Plotted against his father as the latter preferred Deiphontes to his own sons. King of Argos after Deiphontes (Pau.2.12.6, 2.19.1, 2.28.3).

Medon 8. King of the Argos after his father Cisus, but with limited authority (Pau.2.19.1).

Related sections Agamemnon, Pelopides, Perseus 1, HERACLIDES, Map Achaeans & Trojans, Map of Greece 

Some mentions of Mycenae: Apd.2.1.3, 2.4.5, 2.4.6, 2.5.1, 2.5.3, 2.5.9; Apd.Ep.2.11, 2.16, 3.6, 3.12, 6.23, 6.25, 6.28, 6.29; Arg.1.128; Hom.Il.2.569, 4.52, 4.376, 9.44, 11.46, 15.638; Hom.Od.3.305, 21.108; Hyg.Fab.30, 88, 97, 119, 121, 122; Nonn.25.106, 31.259, 41.267, 41.268, 47.556, 47.647, 47.668; Ov.Met.6.414, 12.34.