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Constellations and Stars

The Planets

Schwatzet mir nicht soviel von Nebelflecken und Sonnen,
Ist die Natur nur gross, weil sie zu zählen euch gibt?
Euer Gegenstand ist der erhabenste freilich im Raume,
Aber, Freunde, im Raum wohnt das Erhabene nicht.
(Friedrich von Schiller, 1759-1805, An die Astronomen).


Andromeda


Altar (Ara). This constellation, some say, was constructed by the CYCLOPES, and it marked the place where the gods made offerings before waging war against the TITANS. Others say, however, that The Altar commemorates the victory against the GIANTS, and that it was set up by Zeus (Hyg.Ast.2.39; Man.1.421ff.).

Andromeda, the Ethiopian princess daughter of Cepheus 1, was placed as a constellation among the stars by the favor of Athena on account of the courage of Perseus 1, who saved her (Hyg.Ast.2.11; Man.1.356, 5.538ff.).

Aquarius or Water Bearer (Aquarius). This constellation, said to be protected by Hera, represents either Ganymedes, who is cupbearer in Heaven, or Deucalion 1, who survived the Flood during which much water poured from the sky, or King Cecrops 1 of Athens, who reigned before wine was discovered (Hyg.Ast.2.29; Man.2.433ff.).

Aquarius or Water Bearer (Aquarius)

Archer (Sagittarius). This constellation, which is protected by Artemis, represents Crotus, a companion of the MUSES that was put by Zeus among the stars (Hyg.Ast.2.27; Man.2.433ff.).

Arcturus (in constellation Bootes). This particularly bright star (Alpha Bootis) is Icarius 2, the man who received from Dionysus 2 a branch of a vine and learned from him the process of making wine. He was killed by some shepherds who having drunk his wine imagined they were bewitched. He had a daughter Erigone 2, who hanged herself when she discovered her father's body (Apd.3.14.7; Hyg.Ast.2.4, 2.35; Hyg.Fab.224; Nonn.47.116, 47.251).

Argo (Puppis). This constellation commemorates the "Argo", vessel of the ARGONAUTS (Ara.Phae.348; Hyg.Ast.2.37; Man.5.36). Puppis was in the 1750s subdivided into four constellations: Carina, Puppis, Pyxis and Vela (keel, poop, compass and sails).

Arrow (Sagitta). About the Arrow it has been said that it represents either the weapon with wich Heracles 1 killed the eagle that devoured the liver of Prometheus 1, or the arrow with which Apollo killed the CYCLOPES, after the death of his son Asclepius (Apd.2.5.11; Dio.4.15.2; Hes.The.527; Hyg.Ast.2.15; Hyg.Fab.31).

Asses (Asellus Borealis and Asellus Australis in the constellation of Cancer). The Northern Donkey (Delta Cancri) and the Southern Donkey (Gamma Cancri) could be either the asses who carried Dionysus 2 and helped him to reach a temple, or the asses who assisted Zeus in his war against the GIANTS (Hyg.Ast.2.23) (see also Dionysus 2 and Gigantomachy).

Balance (Libra). The constellation of Balance was wrought by Hephaestus, who is its protector (Man.2.433ff.).

Bear-Watcher (Bootes). This constellation, also called the Herdsman, is Arcas 1, whom impious Lycaon 2 served to Zeus at a banquet as a meal. Otherwise Arcas 1, after whom Arcadia was named, is known for being the child of Zeus and Callisto, the woman who was turned into a bear. Arcas 1 is called Arctophylax; for he guards Arctos (the Great Bear). It is said that when Arcas 1 was grown up and was hunting in the woods, he saw his mother Callisto turned into a bear and, not recognizing her, tried to kill her. He then chased her into the temple of Zeus Lycaeus, where the penalty for entering is death, according to Arcadian law. Since both would have to die, Zeus, they say, snatched them up and made them immortal putting them among the stars. This is why Arcas 1 is seen in the sky following the Bear, that is, his mother Callisto. Others have said that Bootes represents Icarius 2 (see also Arcturus above), who was called Bootes because he put his full wineskins on a wagon (the Bear looking as a wagon), after receiving the wine, the vine and the grape from Dionysus 2, so that he could teach men how to plant and how to use what was produced.When Icarius 2, they say, had planted the vine and had made it flourish, a goat broke into the vineyard nibbling the tenderest leaves. So Icarius 2 killed the goat, made a sack from the skin and, blowing it up, cast it among his friends, instructing them to dance around it. Others have said that when Icarius 2 showed his wagon full of wine to some shepherds, they, having drunk the wine in large quantities, were intoxicated. Other shepherds then, witnessing the unseemly behavior that the excess of wine caused in their comrades, thought that Icarius 2 had given them poison. Because of this suspicion they killed him and threw his body into a well, although some say that they buried near a certain tree. However when the drunken party woke up, they said that they never had rested better and asked for Icarius 2, wishing to offer him a reward; but the murderers, having understood their mistake, at once took to flight. Later, when Icarius 2's daughter Erigone 2 was longing for her father, the dog of Icarius 2, called Maera 2, having come to her with howls and lamentations, took hold of her dress with its teeth and led her to her father's body. Having thus discovered what had happened to her father, Erigone 2, overcome with loneliness and poverty, hanged herself from the tree beneath which her father was buried. And after her even the dog left this life, casting itself into a well. They say that Zeus or Dionysus 2, moved by their fates, put them all among the stars: Icarius 2 in Bootes, Erigone 2 in the Virgin, and the dog in Procyon (Hyg.Ast.2.4).

Bull (Taurus)

Bowl (Crater). This constellation, also called The Cup, shows, some say, the Bowl in which Mastusius mixed with wine the blood of the daughters of Demophon 3. The latter, who was King of Elaeusa near Troy, had to sacrifice one girl every year because of a plague which had fallen over the country. That was the remedy recommended by an oracle. However he would always pass over his own daughters, choosing by lot, on every occasion, one of the daughters of the nobles. This unfair scheme offended Mastusius, a man of the highest rank, who said that he would not allow his daughter to participate in the drawing unless the king's daughters were included. Some rulers, however, deeply disliking to be called unjust, find such occasions adequate to give lessons and warnings to others on the subject of authority. This is why he decided to kill Mastusius' daughter without drawing lots at all. At first Mastusius pretended not to resent the outrage, seeming to believe that his daughter might have perished anyway if the lots had been taken. And as it is easy to induce him, who has committed a evil deed, to forget it, the king, seeing that Mastusius was in friendly terms with him, left the whole story behind. One day Mastusius invited Demophon 3 and his daughters for a celebration at his house, and as the king was busy with a state affair, he sent his daughters ahead, saying that he would come later. When the king's daughters arrived Mastusius killed them and, mixing their blood with wine in a bowl, bade it be given as a drink to the king on his arrival. When Demophon 3 learned what had happened, he ordered Mastusius and the bowl to be thrown into the sea, but ancient Astronomers pictured it in stars, so that men might bear in mind that no one can profit from an evil deed with impunity, nor can hostilities be easy forgotten. Others say that this is the Bowl that a certain crow had to fill with water at Apollo's request and, instead of performing his task, he stayed away eating figs. It is told that when Apollo was preparing a celebration, he sent a crow with a bowl in his hooked claws to fetch water from running springs. The crow, however, found first a fig-tree loaded with fruit, but as the figs were still unripe he perched under the tree, waiting for them to sweeten. When at last the crow had eaten his fill, he snatched a water-snake and, returning to his master, he told him that the creeping beast, having kept the spring from flowing, was the cause of his delay. This is how the crow attempted to cheat the god of prophecy, and this is the reason why, some say, the three constellations (the Crow, the Serpent and the Bowl) are seen together (Hyg.Ast.2.40; Ov.Fast.2.243ff.).

Cassiopeia

Bull (Taurus). This constellation, protected by Aphrodite, represents the Bull who carried off Europa (Hyg.Ast.2.21; Man.2.433ff.; Nonn.33.287, 38.394).

Canopus (star Alpha Carinae). This star, located in the constellation Carina, is said to be Canopus, an island in the Nile. Because of this some have said that the river Eridanus represents the Nile (Hyg.Ast.2.32).

Goat in Charioteer (Capella in Auriga; Alpha Aurigae). This star is the goat Amalthea, who gave her breast to Zeus (see Zeus) (Ara.Phae.162).

Capricorn or Sea Goat (Capricornus). This constellation protected by Hestia, represents either Aegipan 1 who was nourished together with Zeus, or Pan, who was transformed in Egypt during Typhon's attack. To Aegipan 1, son of Pan and Aex, and not to Pan, some attribute the kind of fear that is called "panic", which he cast into the TITANS during the Titanomachy. They add that the lower part of his body looks like a fish, because he also hurled shellfish against the TITANS, instead of stones. Concerning Pan they say that he, in order to escape Typhon, cast himself into the river, making the lower part of his body a fish, and the rest a goat, and that Zeus, admiring his shrewdness, put this shape among the constellations (Hyg.Ast.2.28; Man.2.433ff.).

Cassiopeia (Cassiopeia). This is Cassiopea 2, who boasted that she excelled the NEREIDS in beauty. Also her daughter Andromeda, and the latter's husband Perseus 1, and Andromeda's father Cepheus 1, are among the stars (Hyg.Ast.2.10).

Centaur (Centaurus). This constellation shows either the wise Centaur Chiron, or the Centaur Pholus 1. Chiron is believed to have gained this honour because of his conscientiousness and diligence, and Pholus 1 because he was considered to be more skilled in prophecy than the rest of the CENTAURS. Both of them are seen coming to the altar with a victim for sacrifice (Hyg.Ast.2.38; Ov.Fast.5.379).

Charioteer (Auriga)

Cepheus

Cepheus (Cepheus). Cepheus 1 was placed by the gods among the stars to commemorate the whole family on account of the saving of Andromeda by Perseus 1 (see also these and Cassiopea 2) (Hyg.Ast.2.9).

Charioteer (Auriga). Some say that this constellation shows King Erichthonius 2 of Athens, said to be the first to use the four-horse chariot (quadriga). Others say it represents Orsilochus 6, the man from Argos who invented the four-horse chariot. Still others say that this constellation is Myrtilus, placed by his father Hermes in the sky after being murdered by Pelops 1 (see this name) (Hyg.Ast.2.13; Nonn.33.293).

Crab (Cancer). This constellation, protected by Hermes and put among the stars by Hera, represents the crab that was killed by Heracles 1 while he was fighting the Hydra (Hyg.Ast.2.23; Man.2.33, 2.433ff.).

Crow (Corvus). This constellation shows either Crow 1, which is the crow that reported to Apollo about the love between Coronis 2 and Ischys, or Crow 3, the crow that had to fetch water and bring it to Apollo, but returned without it and with a lying tale about a Serpent that had prevented his filling the Bowl with water (see also Bowl). Coronis 2 was killed by Apollo, and as she was burning, he snatched his son Asclepius from the pyre. (Hyg.Ast.2.40. b)Ov.Fast.2.243ff.).

Crab (Cancer)

Crown (Corona Borealis). This constellation of the Northern Crown, some say, is Dionysus 2's wedding gift to Ariadne, or perhaps the wedding gift she received from Aphrodite and the HORAE, or else Aphrodite's gift to Dionysus 2. It has also been said that Thetis gave this crown to Theseus and that it had been originally given to her as a wedding gift by Aphrodite. Others have said that this was Amphitrite's gift to Theseus which he gave to Ariadne when he married her. Still others say that the crown that Aphrodite gave to Ariadne, was given to the goddess by her husband Hephaestus (Ara.Phae.71; Hyg.Ast.2.5; Man.1.323., 5.21; Nonn.1.202; Ov.Fast.3.514).

Dog (Canis Major). The constellation of the Greater Dog is, according to some, the extraordinary dog Laelaps 2, which was given by Zeus as a guardian for Europa, and later acquired by King Minos 2 of Crete, who gave it to Procris 2 as a bribe so that she would lie in his bed beside him. It was fated that no beast could ever escape Laelaps 2; however he met his end chasing the Cadmean Fox, which was fated to outrun all dogs (see Amphitryon). Zeus solved this impossible equation by turning both into stone. Others have said that this constellation is one of Orion's dogs, and still others call it Maera 2, which is the dog of Icarius 2, who was murdered by shepherds (see above) (Hyg.Ast.2.35; Ov.Fast.4.939).

Dolphin (Delphinus). This constellation is the Dolphin which persuaded Amphitrite to marry Poseidon, say some. For she, they say, wishing to remain a virgin and refusing to marry, fled to Mount Atlas. But the Dolphin, carrying the messages of Poseidon, found her and, having persuaded her to marry the god, himself took charge of the wedding. It is for this invaluable service that Poseidon put the Dolphin among the constellations. Others have said that the Tyrrhenian SAILORS or pirates that tried to delude Dionysus 2 were charmed by the god and, casting themselves into the sea, became dolphins; the god then put the image of one of them among the stars. Still others say that this is the Dolphin which bore Arion 2, the citharist, from the Sicilian Sea to Taenarum. Arion 2 was a citharist or lyre-player from Methymna who landed in Taenarum during the reign of Pyranthus of Corinth. He was betrayed by his servants, but by singing attracted the dolphins that saved him (this story at Corinth) (Hyg.Ast.2.17; Ov.Fast.2.79ff.).

Eagle (Aquila). This constellation, which some believe to be the eagle that brings back the thunderbolts which Zeus has flung, represents, according to some, the Eagle who snatched Ganymedes. Others think that this is the eagle which Zeus saw as an omen for attacking the TITANS. Still others believe that the constellation commemorates in fact Zeus himself who took the form of an eagle in order to approach Aegina, mother of Aeacus. Yet it has also been said that this is the Eagle which took Aphrodite's sandal to Hermes. For Hermes fell in love with the goddess, and being rejected by her, was pitied by Zeus, who, when Aphrodite was bathing in the river Achelous, sent an eagle to take her sandal and give it to Hermes. This is how Aphrodite, seeking for her sandal, had to come to him who loved her, and Hermes, having thus attained his desire, put the eagle in the sky; for those who make happy hours possible should never be forgotten.Some, too, have said that the eagle could be Merops 3, who ruled the island of Cos, called after his daughter, and the inhabitants Meropians after himself. His wife Ethemea, one of the NYMPHS, was struck with the arrows of Artemis for having ceased worshipping her and taken alive by Persephone to the Underworld. When Merops 3, grieving his wife, was about to commit suicide, Hera, pitying him, changed him into an eagle and put him among the constellations. She did not put him in the sky, they say, in human form, since he then would have a man's memory and would still be moved with longing for his wife (Hyg.Ast.2.16; Man.5.486; Nonn.33.297).

Great Bear (Ursa Major)

Eosphorus. Eosphorus has also been called Hesperus 1 and Phosphorus and Lucifer. But in fact this is the morning and the evening "star", which in reality is the planet calle Venus. In any case Eosphorus is the son of Eos (Dawn) either by Cephalus 2 or by Astraeus 1. He was husband of Philonis and was father by her of Ceyx. According to Conon, Philonis was daughter of Eosphorus (rather than her mate) (Apd.1.7.4; Con.7; Hes.The.378ff.; Hyg.Ast.2.42; Hyg.Fab.65, 161; Nonn.6.18; Ov.Met.11.271, 11.295; QS.5.132).

Eridanus or River (Eridanus). The constellation of Eridanus is the Nile, say some, the Ocean, say others, the Po say still others. Eridanus is the river in which Phaethon 3, the son of Helius, fell after his attempt to drive his father's chariot (Dio.5.23.3; Hyg.Ast.2.32).

Fish (Piscis Austrinus). The Southern Fish, which seems to take water in his mouth from the sign of Aquarius, is believed to have once saved Isis when she was in labor, and as a reward she placed it among the stars. Yet others say that the Fish commemorates the day when Aphrodite and her son Eros escaped Typhon turning into fishes (Hyg.Ast.2.41; Ov.Fast.2.458ff.).

Fishes (Pisces). This constellation, protected by Poseidon, commemorates Aphrodite and her son Eros, who escaped Typhon transforming into fishes (but see Fish above) (Hyg.Ast.2.30; Man.2.33, 2.433ff.).

Kneeler (Hercules)

Great Bear (Ursa Major). This is Callisto, who was changed into a bear by Artemis and placed among the stars by Zeus (Hyg.Ast.2.1; Man.2.29).

Hare (Lepus). This hare is said to be fleeing the Dog of Orion (Ara.Phae.338; Hyg.Ast.2.33).

Horse (Pegasus). The Winged Horse is Pegasus, whom Bellerophon rode when he killed Chimera. Others have said that this horse represents Melanippe 1, who was changed into a mare by Artemis. Melanippe 1, daughter of the Centaur Chiron, was brought up on Mount Helicon as a huntress. She was loved by Aeolus 1 and conceived a child by him. When she was about to give birth she fled into the forest, praying to the gods not to let her father, who supposed her a virgin, see her in childbirth so that her father might not see that she had given birth to a grandchild. And so when her father was looking for her she was changed into a mare and placed among the stars. Others have said that, being a prophetess, she used to reveal the plans of the gods to men, and for that reason she was changed into a mare. Still others said that her transformation occurred when she ceased hunting and worshipping Artemis, and that it was this goddess who changed her into a mare (Hyg.Ast.2.18; Man.5.633).

HYADES (in Taurus). These stars are either the sisters of Hyas, whose death they grieved so much, or the NYMPHS LAMUSIDES who took care of Dionysus 2. But the HYADES 1, sisters of Hyas (or else his daughters), are also said to have been the nurses of Dionysus 2 being sometimes called NYMPHS DODONIDES. When Hyas was killed while hunting, the HYADES 1, given over to continual lamentation, are said to have perished, but having turned into stars, they are immortal. The NYMPHS LAMUSIDES (because they are daughters of Lamus 3, son of Zeus) are the Naiads who took care of the child Dionysus 2; but having been maddened by Hera would have chopped up the baby had not Hermes come and stolen it (Hyg.Ast.2.21; Nonn.14.147).

Milky Way (Via Lactea)

Kneeler (Hercules). The Kneeler shows Heracles 1 trying to kill Ladon 4, the dragon of the HESPERIDES, or perhaps fighting the Ligurians, an Italian people. Or Theseus, lifting the stone at Troezen (his father Aegeus 1 had put a sword under it, and warned Theseus' mother not to send him to Athens until he could lift the stone by his own strength). Or Ceteus 1, son of impious Lycaon 2, lamenting that Megisto was changed into a bear. Or Thamyris 1, blinded by the MUSES, kneeling as a suppliant. Or Orpheus, killed by the Thracian women. Or Ixion with his arms bound, because he tried to attack Hera. Or Prometheus 1 bound (Hyg.Ast.2.6).

Lesser Bear (Ursa Minor). This constellation shows Cynosura, an Idaean nymph and nurse of Zeus, who was among the CURETES (see also CORYBANTES). She could also be Helice 1, nurse of Zeus and daughter of Olenus 1, son of Hephaestus (Hyg.Ast.2.2; Man.2.30).

Lion (Leo). This constellation, protected by Zeus and Rhea 1, shows the Nemean Lion, the first Labour of Heracles 1 (Hyg.Ast.2.24; Man.2.433ff., 5.206).

Lyre (Lyra). This constellation, put in the sky by the MUSES, represents the lyre made by Hermes and given to Orpheus by either Hermes or Apollo after the latter had invented the cithara. Others say this is the lyre of Theseus (Ara.Phae.269; Hyg.Ast.2.6, 2.7; Man.1.325).

Milky Way (Via Lactea). The band of stars stretching across the sky, which build the galaxy, was formed by the milk of Hera, which flowed when she realized that she had been giving milk to Hermes (or Heracles 1) and thrust him away. Others have said that Hera intended with her milk to anoint and feed Dionysus 2 in order to heal his madness. Others say that it was the milk of Rhea 1, which flowed at the time when she presented the stone to Cronos. The Milky Way, others believe, was created when the heavens were set afire, when Phaethon 3 drove his father Helius' chariot. It is also told that the Milky Way is formed by the souls of heroes, who freed from the body dwell in Heaven (Dio.5.23.3; Hyg.Ast.2.43; Man.1.736, 1.753, 1.758; Nonn.35.298ff.).

Orion (Orion). This is the hunter, who was put among the stars by Artemis, who mourned his death (but see Orion) (Hyg.Ast.2.34).

Orion

Perseus (Perseus). This constellation commemorates the deliverance of Andromeda by Perseus 1. He was placed among the stars because of his nobility (Hyg.Ast.2.12; Man.2.28).

Perseus

PLEIADES (Pleiades). This star cluster in the constellation of Taurus commemorate the PLEIADES, daughters of Atlas and Pleione (Hyg.Ast.2.21; Man.5.710).

Polaris (Polaris in Ursa Minor or Alpha Ursae Minoris). This star in the constellation Ursa Minor is Cynosura (see above) (Hyg.Ast.2.2).

Procyon (Canis Minor). The star Alpha Canis Minoris is called Procyon because it rises before the greater Dog. It may be one of the dogs of the hunter Orion (Hyg.Ast.2.4, 2.36).

Ram (Aries). This constellation, protected by Athena, is the Ram whose Golden Fleece had to be fetched by the ARGONAUTS. Some said, too, that the Ram was placed in the sky by Dionysus 2 to commemorate another Ram, which led Dionysus 2's soldiers, when he was attacking Africa, to the place where there was an abundant supply of water (Hyg.Ast.2.20; Man.2.433ff., 4.516; Ov.Fast.4.903).

Scorpion (Scorpius). This constellation, protected by Ares, shows the Scorpion who killed Orion, having been sent against him either by Gaia or by Artemis (Ara.Phae.634ff.; Hyg.Ast.2.26; Man.2.32, 2.433ff.).

Twins (Gemini)

Sea-Monster or Whale (Cetus). The constellation of the Whale pictures the sea-monster sent by Poseidon to kill Andromeda (Hyg.Ast.2.31; Man.1.433, 5.656).

Serpent (Serpens). This constellation pictures Ladon 4, guardian-dragon of the golden apples of the HESPERIDES. Or the Dragon thrown against Athena by the GIANTS, which the goddess snatched, threw, and fixed at the pole of heaven. Others say this is the serpent that a certain Crow (see Crow above) brought to Apollo, lying that it was the cause of his delay in fetching water in a Bowl at his master's request (see also Bowl above) (Hyg.Ast.2.3; Ov.Fast.2.243ff.).

Serpent-Holder (Ophiuchus). The Serpent-Holder is King Carnabon of the Getae in Thrace, who was placed among the stars by Demeter for having killed one of the Dragons of Triptolemus' chariot whom she had sent to distribute grain. Others say that the constellation pictures Heracles 1, killing a serpent in Lydia. It is also told that this is the serpent, sent by Demeter to plague Triopas 2, for having torn down her temple. Still others say that Phorbas 2, the man who killed a great number of snakes in Rhodes, is commemorated by this constellation. And yet others say that The Serpent-Holder is Asclepius, put among the stars by Zeus for the sake of Apollo (Hyg.Ast.2.14).

Sirius (Sirius in Canis Major). The star Alpha Canis Majoris was, some say, put in the sky by Isis. Some call it the Dog of Orion; others call it Maera 2, the dog of Icarius 2 (see above) (Hom.Il.22.25; Hyg.Ast.2.35; Nonn.16.200; Ov.5.723).

Virgin (Virgo)

Swan (Cygnus). Zeus visited Nemesis or Leda in the form of a swan which he afterwards placed among the stars as a constellation (Hyg.Ast.2.8; Man.1.337).

Triangle (Triangulum). This constellation was placed in the sky by Hermes, so that Aries might be enhanced. It has been called Deltoton after the triangular Greek letter Delta, and it has been believed to picture Egypt, Ethiopia or Sicily (Hyg.Ast.2.19).

Twins (Gemini). The constellation of The Twins, protected by Apollo, represent the brothers Castor 1 and Polydeuces (Pollux), called the DIOSCURI. Or Heracles 1 and Apollo. Or Triptolemus and Iasion (see Demeter). (Hyg.Ast.2.22; Man.2.433ff.).

Virgin (Virgo). This constellation, protected by Demeter, is Dike, also called Astraea, the last of the immortals to leave earth. Some say the constellation pictures Erigone 2, placed among the stars for her filial affection. Others have said Tyche, still others Demeter, and yet others Parthenos, whom Apollo put among the stars because she died young. Parthenos was daughter of Chrysothemis 2, either by Apollo or by Staphylus 1, son of Ariadne (Ara.Phae.97; Hyg.Ast.2.25; Man.2.32, 2.433ff.).

Water-Snake (Hydra). This constellation, the largest in the sky, commemorates the Hydra of Lerna, one of the Labours of Heracles 1 (Hyg.Ast.2.40) (see also BESTIARY).


Index of characters related to the stars 

Aegipan 1, Aeolus 1, Amalthea, Amphitrite, Andromeda, Aphrodite, Apollo, Arcas 1, ARGONAUTS' ship, Ariadne, Arion 2, Asclepius, Ass, ASSES 1, ASSES 2, Astraea, Bull 2, Callisto, Carnabon, Cassiopea 2, Castor 1, Cecrops 1, Cepheus 1, Ceteus 1, Chiron, Crab, Crotus, Crow 1, Crow 3, CYCLOPES, Cynosura, Demeter, Deucalion 1, Dike, Dionysus 2, Dog 1, Dolphin, Dragon 6, Eagle 2, Eagle 3, Eagle 4, Eagle 6, Eosphorus, Europa, Erichthonius 2, Eridanus, Erigone 2, Eros, Eupheme 1, Fish, Ganymedes, Hare, Helice 1, Hera, Heracles 1, Hermes, Hippolytus 4, HYADES 1, Hydra, Iasion, Icarius 2, Isis (see Io), Ixion, Ladon 4, Laelaps 2, Leda, Lion 2 Nemean, Maera 2, Mastusius, Megisto, Melanippe 1, Menippe 2, Merops 3, Metioche 2, Myrtilus, Nemesis, Nilus, NYMPHS, NYMPHS LAMUSIDES, Oceanus, Orion, Orpheus, Orsilochus 6, Pan, Parthenos, Pegasus, Perseus 1, Phaethon 3, Philomelus, Pholus 1, Phorbas 2, PLEIADES, Polydeuces, Procyon, Prometheus 1, Ram 1, Ram 2, Rhea 1, Scorpion, Sea-Monster 1, Serpent 16, Serpent 23, Thamyris 1, Theseus, Triopas 2, Triptolemus, Tyche, Zeus.


  • The Latin name of each constellation or star is written between parentheses.
  • The images in colour are from Philippe La Hire, Planisphere celeste, 1705. B/W images are from Johann Bode, Uranographia. Berlin, 1801.
  • The creation of the Milky Way, in which Zeus approaches Heracles 1 to Hera's breast, is a painting by Tintoretto (1518-1594).

Related sections  
Sources
Abbreviations

See above.

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