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AMAZONS
Ἀμαζόνες

Amazons. 3636: Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, 1751-1829: Ansreitende Amazonen. Landesmuseum Oldenburg, Das Schloß.


Homeland of the AMAZONS

The AMAZONS were a nation of women dwelling near the river Thermodon. They were, as a race, regarded as children of Ares and Harmonia 2. The AMAZONS of Libya were much earlier in point of time and disappeared entirely many generations before the Trojan War. But those about the Thermodon river were in their full vigour a little before that time. The Libyan AMAZONS were also known for having waged war against the people of Atlantis, the most civilised men of the region, who dwelt in a prosperous country and possessed great cities.

Some of their customs

The AMAZONS cultivated the manly virtues and pinched off the right breasts of all females so that they might not be hindered by them in throwing the javelin. But they kept the left breasts so that they might suckle, as they gave birth to children through normal intercourse with the other sex.

Where they lived

The AMAZONS lived between the river Halys and the city called Trabson in the northern coast of Asia Minor and perhaps beyond, coming to Caucasus; for it is said that it was in the vicinity of Caucasus that the AMAZONS had regularly intercourse with the Gargarians; and whereas these kept the males, the AMAZONS kept the females. To the west of the Halys river were the Paphlagonians. It is assumed that the Gargarians and the AMAZONS were a single people living in Themiscyra, until the AMAZONS revolted and expelled them to Caucasus, being supported by Thracians and Euboeans. Later however, the AMAZONS made a compact with them on the matter of children. But others simply say that a warlike woman took power in Themiscyra and assigned domestic duties to men, while herself led successful military campaigns throughout the whole coast, from Caucasus to Thrace.

8014: Sarcophagus: battle between Greeks and Amazons. From Naples. Proconnesian marble about AD 275-300. British Museum, London.

Cities founded by them

The cities of Cyme, Myrine, Ephesus and Smyrna were founded by the AMAZONS, according to tradition. The temple of Artemis in Ephesus is attributed to Otrere, the queen of the AMAZONS who raised it for the first time. But since some towns are founded several times, there is also one Ephesus, son of the river god Cayster, who is said to have founded the city that bears his name. Otherwise the foundation of Ephesus is attributed to Androclus, son of King Codrus 1 of Athens, son of Melanthus 1, son of Andropompus 1, son of Borus 3, son of Penthilus 2, son of Periclymenus 1, son of Neleus and brother of Nestor. Now, Androclus was one of those who colonized Ionia, and his time could be estimated to 1020 BC aproximately (ca. 200 years after the Trojan War). Ephesus, some recall, was at some point called Smyrna, being so named after an Amazon Smyrna, who took possession of the city. Later the city Smyrna was founded from Ephesus by emigrants from this city. Because of Ephesus, and because of their customs, the Amazons are regarded as worshippers of Artemis, a goddess who may assume different forms. Theseus' son Hippolytus 4, son of an Amazon, was also a worshipper of Artemis.

Their last wars

The decline of the AMAZONS seems to have been caused by the expeditions of Heracles 1, Theseus, and the remembered campaigns of the young King Priam 1. During the Trojan War, the AMAZONS came, led by Penthesilia (whom some believe to be some sort of runaway, after having killed her sister), to help defend Troy.

Some persons related to the AMAZONS 

Achilles fought the AMAZONS at Troy, finding among them yet another sweetheart: having killed Penthesilia, he fell in love with her. Bellerophon was ordered by Iobates to fight the AMAZONS. Heracles 1 fought the AMAZONS in order to get the Belt of Hippolyte 2. With him were Autolycus 2, Deileon 1 and Phlogius 2. Sthenelus 5 followed Heracles 1 in his campaign against the AMAZONS. Mygdon, king of the Bebrycians, once fought with Priam 1 against the AMAZONS. Otreus 1: Phrygian warrior, whose people once fought with Priam 1 against the AMAZONS

Solois: When Theseus returned from his expedition against the AMAZONS, he had Antiope 4 on board his ship. There chanced to be with him three young men of Athens, who were brothers: Euneus 3, Thoas 11 and Solois. The latter fell in love with Antiope 4 unbeknown to the rest, and revealed his secret to one of his intimate friends. That friend made overtures to Antiope 4, who repulsed the attempt, but treated the matter with discretion and gentleness, and made no denunciation to Theseus. But Solois, in despair,threw himself into a river and drowned.

Theseus: The AMAZONS, at a certain time, attacked Athens, and having organised their forces about the Areopagus, were vanquished by the Athenians led by Theseus. It is also said that when Theseus married Phaedra, and when the marriage was being celebrated, the Amazon that had before been married to him, and who had given him a son (Hippolytus 4), appeared in arms with other AMAZONS, and threatened to kill the wedding guests. But the guests closed the doors and killed her, or as others say, she was killed in battle by Theseus. So, some say, that a battle took place, and that she (Hippolyte 3) was killed, either involuntarily by Penthesilia, her ally, or by Theseus, or because the wedding guests, seeing the threatening AMAZONS, hastily closed the doors and, separating her from the rest, slew her.

Family 

Parentage

Ares & Harmonia 2

 
 

List of AMAZONS 

5113: Amazons. Apulia 4C BC. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.


Aella. The first of the AMAZONS to join battle with Heracles 1 when he made his expedition in order to bring back the girdle of Hippolyte 2. She was killed by him (Dio.4.16.2).

Agave 4 (Hyg.Fab.163).

Alcibie. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. Killed by Diomedes 2 at Troy (QS.1.45, 1.260).

Alcippe 4 had taken a vow to remain a maiden. She was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Antandre. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. Killed by Achilles at Troy (QS.1.43, 1.531).

Antianira 2. Queen of the AMAZONS. The AMAZONS maimed their male children by removing a leg or a hand. And when the Scythians, desiring to come to terms in their war against them, told them that they would find in them no maimed or mutilated bedfellows, Antianira 2 replied that lame men make lusty husbands (Mimn.23).

Antibrote. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. Killed by Achilles at Troy (QS.1.45, 1.532).

Antioche (Hyg.Fab.163).

Antiope 4 fell in love with Theseus. She was sister of Hippolyte 3 or perhaps the same person (see also Hippolyte 3). She had a son Hippolytus 4 by Theseus. Antiope 4 was killed either by Molpadia 1 or by Theseus (Dio.4.28.3; Hyg.Fab.241; Pau.1.2.1).

Asteria 3 was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Bremusa. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. Killed by Idomeneus 1 at Troy (QS.1.43, 1.247).

Celaeno 5. A companion of Artemis in the hunt. Killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Clonie. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. Killed by Podarces 2 at Troy (QS.1.42, 1.235ff.).

Clymene 7 (Hyg.Fab.163).

0721: Amazon in battle. Greek relief 4C BC. Künsthistorische Museum, Wien.

Deianira 3 was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Derimacheia. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. Killed by Diomedes 2 at Troy (QS.1.45, 1.260).

Derinoe. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. She was killed by Ajax 2 at Troy (QS.1.42, 1.258).

Dioxippe 4 (Hyg.Fab.163).

Eriboea 2 was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Euryale 3. An Amazon fighting in Aeetes' army against the troops of Perses 3 (Val.6.370).

Eurybia 3. A companion of Artemis in the hunt. She was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Evandre. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. She was killed by Meriones at Troy (QS.1.43, 1.254).

Glauce 6 (Hyg.Fab.163).

Harmothoe. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. She was killed by Achilles at Troy (QS.1.44, 1.533).

Harpe 3. An Amazon fighting in Aeetes' army against the troops of Perses 3 (Val.6.375).

Hippolyte 2. Queen of the AMAZONS who owned the belt that Heracles 1 had to fetch. She was killed by Heracles 1 (Apd.2.5.9; Dio.4.16.1; Plu.GQ.45; QS.6.242).

Hippolyte 3. An Amazon who attacked Athens when Theseus was about to marry Phaedra; or else Theseus brought her with him. She is sometimes identified with Antiope 4 (see also this name). Mate: Theseus. Offspring: Hippolytus 4. Death: Some say that she was killed accidentally by Penthesilia. Others say that she was killed by Theseus. Still others say that she was killed by Molpadia 1, while fighting at Theseus' side against the AMAZONS. But it is also said that she died of a broken heart in Megara (Apd.Ep.1.16-17, 5.1-2; Arg.2.966; Pau.1.41.7; Plu.The.27.4; QS.1.24; Stat.Theb.12.636).

Hippothoe 4. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. She was killed by Achilles at Troy (Hyg.Fab.163; QS.1.44, 1.532).

Iphinome (Hyg.Fab.163).

Laomache (Hyg.Fab.163).

3723: Achilles and Penthesilia. Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, 1751-1829: Tod der Penthesilea. Landesmuseum Oldenburg, Das Schloß.

Lyce. An Amazon fighting in Aeetes' army against the troops of Perses 3. She was killed by Gesander (Val.6.374).

Marpe was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.3).

Melanippe 2 was taken captive by Heracles 1, but Hippolyte 3 gave him her girdle as her sister's ransom (Arg.2.966ff.; Dio.4.16.4).

Menippe 3 fought in Aeetes' army against the troops of Perses 3 (Val.6.377).

Molpadia 1 is said to be the one who shot Hippolyte 3 dead. She was herself killed by Theseus (Pau.1.2.1).

Myrina. Queen of the AMAZONS (Dio.3.54.2; Hom.Il.2.813; Strab.12.8.6).

Ocyale (Hyg.Fab.163).

Otrere. Queen of the AMAZONS and the first to raise a temple to Artemis in Ephesus. Mate: Ares. Offspring: Penthesilia (Apd.Ep.5.1; Arg.2.386; Hyg.Fab.163, 223, 225).

Penthesilia is said to have killed Hippolyte 3 and to have been purified by Priam 1, king of Troy. Achilles killed her during the Trojan War, and fell in love with her, who had come to aid the Trojans, after her death (AETH.1; Apd.Ep.5.1; Hyg.Fab.112, 163; QS.1.19ff., 1.619ff, 1.671; Try.35).

Philippis was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Phoebe 5. A companion of Artemis in the hunt. She was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Polemusa. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. She was killed by Achilles at Troy (QS.1.42, 1.531).

Polydora 6 (Hyg.Fab.163).

Prothoe 1 was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Tecmessa 2 was killed by Heracles 1 (Dio.4.16.2).

Thermodosa. One of the AMAZONS who came with Penthesilia to the Trojan War. She was killed by Meriones at Troy (QS.1.46, 1.254).

Thoe 3. An Amazon fighting in Aeetes' army against the troops of Perses 3. She was killed by Gesander (Val.6.375).

Xanthe 2 (Hyg.Fab.163).


Related sections AMAZONS in GROUPS: ARES' OFFSPRING  
Sources
Abbreviations

Apd.2.3.2, 2.5.9; Apd.Ep.1.16-17, 5.2; Arg.2.374, 2.386, 2.912, 2.965, 2.985, 2.987, 2.1173; Hom.Il.3.189, 6.186; Hyg.Fab.14, 30, 163, 241, 250, 273; Nonn.20.198, 34.158, 35.91, 36.261, 36.265, 37.117, 40.26, 40.293, 45.9, 48.826.

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