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Contemporaries
800 BC – AD 600
Arranged chronologically



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Chart Contemporaries (high resolution)
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To make the historical context more visible (in the chart), poets, mythographers and artists appear side by side with other personalities, such as philosophers, historians, scientists, and statesmen. Each kind is marked with a different colour, but obviously several among them could be associated with more than one color.


Names in this chart
Dates are uncertain in many cases, and highly conjectural in several others


Aeschylus (525-456 BC) from Eleusis. Athenian dramatist (see also Bibliography).

Alexander the Great, (356-323 BC). Macedonian conqueror.

Anacreon (born c. 570 BC). Lyric poet.

 

Anastasius I (c. AD 430-518). Emperor of Byzantium (491-518).

Anaxagoras (c. 500-428 BC). Philosopher from Clazomenae.

Anaximander (610-546 BC) from Miletus. Philosopher asserting that the infinite is the first principle of all existing things.

 

Anaximenes (fl. c. 546 BC) from Miletus. Philosopher asserting that infinite air is the first principle of all existing things.

Antoninus Liberalis (c. 100 AD). Mythographer (see also Bibliography).

Apollodorus (c. 100 AD). Mythographer (see also Bibliography).

Apollonius Rhodius (c. 295-215 BC). Poet and mythographer (see also Bibliography).

Apuleius (c. 160 AD). Roman writer (see also Bibliography).

Aratus (315-240 BC). Author of an astronomical poem (see also Bibliography).

 

Archimedes (c. 287-212 BC). Mathematician.

Aristophanes (450-385 BC). Comic dramatist (see also Bibliography).

Aristotle (384-322 BC). Philosopher.

 

Athenaeus (c. AD 170-230). Author of The Deipnosophists.

Augustus (27 BC-AD 14). First emperor of Rome.

 

Bacchylides (c. 505-450 BC). Poet.

Boethius (AD 480-524). Roman statesman and philosopher; author of The Consolation of Philosophy.

Callicrates (5th century BC). Designer of the Parthenon in collaboration with Ictinus.

Callimachus (305-240 BC). Poet and scholar (see also Bibliography).

Carneades (c. 214-129 BC). Philosopher, founder of the Third Academy.

 

Cato 'Censorius' (234-149 BC). Roman statesman (quaestor, praetor, censor), remembered for his persistent demand for the destruction of Carthage.

Cicero (106-43 BC). Roman statesman (see also Bibliography).

 

Clement of Alexandria (ca. AD 150-211). Propagandist against the myths.

Colluthus (fl. c. 500 AD). Epic poet (see also Bibliography).

Constantine I the Great (c. AD 274-337). The Roman Emperor (307-37) who had a vision of a Cross, and of a new capital which he called after himself.

Democritus (460-370 BC). Philosopher, remembered for his atomic theory.

Demosthenes (384-322 BC). Athenian orator and statesman.

 

Dio Chrysostom (AD 40-112). Stoic-Cynic philosopher.

Diocletian (AD 245-316). Roman emperor (284-305), remembered for his reforms and the systematic persecution of the Christians.

 

Diodorus Siculus (80-20 BC). Historian (see also Bibliography).

Diogenes of Sinope (400-325 BC). Philosopher, whose followers were called Cynics.

 

Diogenes Laertius (fl. c. 200 AD). Author of a compendium: Lives of Eminent Philosophers.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (60 BC-AD 7). Historian and literary critic (see also Bibliography).

Draco (fl. c. 620 BC). Athenian lawgiver, notorious for his severe penalties.

Empedocles (492-432 BC) Philosopher.

Epaminondas. Theban strategist, killed in battle in 362 BC.

 

Epictetus (AD 55-135). Stoic philosopher.

Epicurus (341-271 BC). Philosopher, founder of the Epicurean system.

 

Euclid (fl. c. 300 BC). Mathematician.

Euhemerus (c. 330-260 BC). The man who turned gods into men.

Euripides (485-406 BC). Athenian tragic dramatist (see also Bibliography).

 

Fabius Planciades Fulgentius (ca. AD 467-532). Known as Fulgentius Mythographus, he was influential during the Middle Ages, when his "Mitologiarum libri tres" explained the myths by etymology and allegorism.

Galen (c. AD 129-199). Physician from Pergamum, active in Rome; attendant doctor of Marcus Aurelius.

Gellius, Aulus (c. AD 130-180). Author of 'The Attic Nights'

Hadrian (AD 76-138). Roman Emperor from AD 117 to his death.

 

Hannibal (247-182 BC). Carthaginian general during the Second Punic War.

Heraclitus (fl. c. 500 BC). Philosopher asserting that everything originates in fire and is in permanent flux.

Herodotus (484-430 BC). Historian, 'the father of history' (see also Bibliography).

 

Heron of Alexandria (fl. AD 62). Mathematician and inventor called "o mechanikós."

Hesiod (fl. c. 750). Earliest known poet after Homer (see also Bibliography).

Hippocrates (460-370 BC). Physician, "the father of medicine."

Homer (c.775 BC). The first known poet (see also Bibliography).

 

Horace (65-8 BC). Roman poet.

Hyginus (c. AD 200). Not clearly identified mythographer (see also Bibliography).

Ictinus (5th century BC). Designer of the Parthenon in collaboration with Callicrates.

Isocrates (436-338 BC). Rhetorician and orator.

Julian 'the Apostate' (AD 331-363). Roman Emperor (360-63), remembered for his attempt to restore the Olympian religion.

Julius Caesar (100-44 BC). Conqueror of Gaul and Roman dictator.

Justinian I (AD 483-565). Emperor of Byzantium (527-65).

 

Livius Andronicus (fl. c. 240 BC). Roman dramatic poet.

Livy (59-17 AD). Roman historian.

 

Longus (uncertain floruit from 2nd to 6th century AD). Novelist (see also Bibliography).

 

Lucian of Samosata (AD 120-190). Travelling lecturer and writer.

 

Lycophron (born c. 320 BC). Poet and supervisor in the library at Alexandria.

 

Manilius (fl. c. 10 AD). Author of astronomical poem (see also Bibliography).

Marcus Aurelius (AD 121-180). Roman emperor (161-80), follower of Epictetus and author of the Meditations.

 

Martial (AD 40-104). Roman poet and writer of epigrams.

Menander (342-289 BC). A celebrated author of Greek New Comedy ('Dyscolus').

 

Metrodorus of Lampsacus (late 5th century BC). Allegorist, friend of Anaxagoras (to distinguish from his epicurean namesake).

 

Mimnermus (fl. c. 630). Poet. (see also Bibliography).

 

Musaeus Grammaticus (? late 5th c. AD). Poet, author of Hero and Leander.

 

Myron (fl. c. 480-455). Sculptor (the 'Discus-thrower').

 

Nonnus (fl. c. 400 AD ?). Epic poet (see also Bibliography).

Ovid (43 BC-17 AD). Roman poet (see also Bibliography).

 

Oribasius (AD 320-400). Personal physician of Emperor Julian, and compiler of excerpts from earlier medical writers.

 

Palaephatus (late 4th century BC ?). Attempted to rationalize the myths.

 

Parthenius (fl. c. 73 BC). Poet (see also Bibliography).

 

Pausanias (fl. c AD 150). Traveller and writer (see also Bibliography).

Pericles (490-429 BC). Athenian statesman.

 

Phidias (490-415 BC) Athenian sculptor.

 

Philostratus Lemnian (born c. AD 190). Author of 'Eikones', descriptions of paintings at Naples

 

Pindar (519-438 BC). Theban lyric poet (see also Bibliography).

 

Pisistratus (600-527 BC). Athenian statesman.

Plato (427-347 BC). Philosopher, pupil of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle (see also Bibliography).

 

Plautus (254-184 BC). Roman comic dramatist.

 

Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79). Roman encyclopedic writer, author of Natural History.

 

Plotinus (c. AD 205-270). Neoplatonic philosopher.

Plutarch (c. AD 45-120). Essayist and biographer (see also Bibliography).

 

Polyclitus (2nd half of the 5th century BC). Argive sculptor ('Spear bearer').

 

Polygnotus of Thasus (fl. c. 475-47). Wall painter, active in Athens. Not a fragment survives, but his work was described by the traveller Pausanias.

 

Porphyry (c. AD 232-305). Disciple of Plotinus; philosopher and student of religions; author of Life of Pythagoras.

Posidonius (c. 135-50 BC). Historian and philosopher, teacher of Cicero.

 

Propertius (c. 50-1 BC). Roman poet (see also Bibliography).

 

Praxiteles (fl. c. 370-40 BC). Sculptor (Aphrodite of Cnidos, Hermes with infant Dionysus, etc.).

 

Prodicus (contemporary of Socrates). Sophist and author of the myth The Choice of Heracles.

 

Ptolemy (c. 100-178). Astronomer, mathematician and geographer (Claudius Ptolemaeus).

Pyrrhus (319-272 BC). King of Epirus, remembered for his 'pyrrhic victory' against Rome.

 

Pythagoras (c. 570-497 BC). Philosopher and mathematician.

 

Quintus Smyrnaeus (fl. c. 400 BC). Epic poet (see also Bibliography).

Sappho (born c. 612 BC). Lyric poet of Mytilene, Lesbos.

Seneca (c. 4 BC-AD 65). Roman philosopher, writer and advisor to Emperor Nero.

Septimius Severus (AD 146-211). Roman emperor (193-211).

 

Socrates (469-399 BC). Philosopher.

Solon (640-560 BC). Athenian statesman and legislator.

Sophocles (496-406 BC). Tragic dramatist (see also Bibliography).

 

Spartacus. Gladiator who led a revolt of slaves in 73-71 BC.

Statius (c. AD 45-96). Roman poet (see also Bibliography).

Strabo (c. 64 BC-AD 21). Historian and geographer (see also Bibliography).

Suetonius (c. 69-140). Roman historian and biographer. Author of Lives of the Caesars.

Thales (c. 625-545 BC). Milesian philosopher asserting that water is the basis of the world.

Theagenes of Rhegium (fl. c. 525 BC). First scholar to attempt an allegorical interpretation of the myths.

Theodosius I (AD 346-395). Roman emperor (379-95), remembered for having forcibly closed the pagan temples. His contribution is also described thus:

"He stamped out the last vestiges of paganism, put an end to the Arian heresy in the empire, pacified the Goths, left a famous example of penitence for a crime, and reigned as a just and mighty Catholic emperor." (Catholic Encyclopaedia)

Theodosius II (AD 401-450). Roman emperor (402-50).

 

Theognis from Megara (fl. c. 540 BC). Elegiac poet.

Theophrastus (370-288 BC). Philosopher, successor of Aristotle.

Thucydides (c. 460-400 BC). General and historian.

 

Tryphiodorus (3rd, 4th or 5th century AD. Epic poet (see also Bibliography).

Valentinian I (AD 321-375). Roman emperor (364-75).

 

Valerius Flaccus (fl. c. 80 BC; probably dead by 90 BC). Roman poet (see also Bibliography).

Vespasian (AD 9-79). Roman emperor (69-79).

Virgil (70-19 BC). Roman poet (see also Bibliography).

 

Xenophanes (c. 570-480 BC). Philosopher, remembered for his attack against antropomorphism.

Xenophon (c. 428-354 BC), follower of Socrates, military leader, and historian.

Zeno Citium (335-263 BC). Philosopher, founder of the stoic school.


Related sections  
Sources
Abbreviations

For composing this page, the following works have been consulted:

THE OXFORD CLASSICAL DICTIONARY (Oxford University Press 1970).
BETTY RADICE: Who's Who in the Ancient World (Penguin 1971).
DAVID R. SEAR: The Emperors of Rome and Byzantium (Seaby Publications, London 1987).
PAUL HARVEY: The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (Oxford University Press, 1986).
LILLIAN FEDER: The Meridian Handbook of Classical Literature (New American Library, 1986).
A.G. DRACHMANN: Antikens teknik (Prisma, Stockholm 1965).
SUSAN WOODFORD: The Art of Greece and Rome (Cambridge University Press, 1982); An Introduction to Greek Art (Duckworth, London 1992).
H. KINDER and W. HILGEMANN: Världshistoria (Tidens förlag, Stockholm 1981). Atlas of World History (Penguin Reference Books).
ROBERT MORKOT: Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece (Penguin, 1996).
The catalogue of The Loeb Classical Library, and several volumes of the same collection.

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